A Case Study At Kts Cellular Sdn Bhd Business Essay

A Case Study at KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd

Senior Project (Management)

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science

Management & Marketing

Upper Iowa University

Spring 2013

By

Ng Chung Rem

300 280 840

SCSJ 0004684

Grade Project Instructor

Ms. Norlinda Binti Nordin

Date of submission

15th April 2013

Abstract

Motivation drives people to be more productive and efficient. KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd, is one of company that operate more than 20 years in supplying the mobile device, Maxis service provider, consultation, supplier for mobile accessories, and more. The research identifies the problem where the employee lacks of motivation to perform well. It causes decrease of productivity of achieving higher company mission and goals. Employees can be motivated on the job by many ways, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, promotion opportunities, and the chance for personal growth. Employee motivation and performance are tied directly to the style of management that is applied and to principles of intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement. Moreover, understanding the task objective of the sales force may also help in maximizing productivity. This study investigated the difference between motivation tools using few methods to conduct and analyze in this research. First, survey research is giving to all employees. Second, 13 journals and 2 articles were used for the specific part of the motivation understanding. Third was the short interview with the founder. The result of the finding is employee are mostly have a lower intrinsic to work. However, some employee has a strong extrinsic level to work. This significant they work only to fulfill their external needs rather than internal needs. As the conclusion, the understanding of the employee motivation process requires a systematic approach, and managers must realize that employee motivation and its process are there to motivate their employees.

KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd Sales Force

Background

KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd, is one of company that operate more than 20 years. They are mainly in supplying and retailer for the mobile device, Maxis service provider partnership, technical and consultation, supplier for mobile accessories like battery or genuine leather, and more. Currently they have three Maxis Executive Partnership (MEPS) and 5 branches around Klang Valley. Lately in 2012, they are beginning to entering the coffee product market in China’s market. But still didn’t manage to achieve their goals. The founder, Jeffrey Lim and his brother, Lim Chin San, begin their business journey by establish this company as small mobile shop which only sell Motorola brand. Soon later after few years later, they begin to enhance their product by selling few other brands. They begin to join partnership with Maxis as Maxis Authorized Service Agent base in Klang. Slowly of the success turn their company to branch out their business to few other places like Aeon Bukit Raja shopping center, The Store Shaw Center, Carrefour Kapar, and several other places. Then they branch out the 2nd Maxis outlet base in Shah Alam. They had won a numbered of award from Top Retailer Award to Top Best Selling Award. They earn a Gold award from Maxis as Best Service Award. They even were nominated as Low Price Award from KPDNKK (Kementerian Perdagangan Dalam Negeri, Koperasi dan Kepenggunaann) since 2011.

After 20 year in the selling of mobile devices and providing services, few months later in 2012, they begin to entering white coffee beverage industry in Malaysia. Although it is not something new in this industry but for them it’s a new challenge as a new entrance to the market. They face difficulty at the beginning as the consumer as use to famous brand like Nescafe, Oldtown, and other competitor brand. Soon later they are trying to take in bigger challenge which is entering international market. The first choice of country would be targeted at China market. It’s seem like the market is wide there but they believe in slow growth at the moment. Until now their market are started to grow in China.

Lately smartphone era begin to growth as the evolution of technology. They officially become part of Samsung Reseller and they begin to introduce the technology to the people. They believe that the hand phone era is reach to their limit and they see that nowadays the demand on one device is not only to make call, short messaging or camera. There are more than that like internet, GPS, navigation, voice command and so a lot more. As a result, the demand for smartphone is getting higher. They took this opportunity to increase the new branch at Setia City Mall at Setia Alam. Two new branches were building inside as one of the outlets is the 3rd Maxis Executive Partnership and one Samsung reseller outlet. They believe they will keep on growing and keep the people up to date with the latest technology.

Theory

Motivation term define in Merriam-Webster as the act or the process of motivating. Motivation was also refer as a key of moving performance to all employees. Several theories were used in this research as the guidelines. Nowadays maintaining business’s performance is very challenging. To survive in the highly challenging and competitive global market economy, the company needed to understand the problem and how to motivate their employee. The significance of employee motivation, influencing the behaviors to behave in certain ways and can decide the success or failure of an organization. According to Kovach (1987), he suggests that if a company knows why their employees come to work on time, stay with the company for their full working lives and are productive, then the company may be survive in marketplace advantage and growth positive. Meanwhile Wiley (1997) also suggests ensuring the success of a company, employers must understand what motivates their employees, and such understanding is essential to improving productivity. These suggestions are the point that organizational success depends heavily on employee motivation, and managers must understand how to motivate their employees.

As for Suzanne G.Benson explain that one of most important key of motivation is by understanding and motivating using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. She makes priority of the hierarchy because as the bottom of the pyramid is the physiological level which includes food, water and shelter, the most basic needs for human survival. An individual’s basic needs have to been met, higher levels in the pyramid are of no relevance, as survival is the most basic human component. Basic survival needs must be met with wages which in turn provide shelter, food, water, heat, clothing, and other needs.

According to Carolyn Wiley’s journal in the ‘What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation surveys’, the basic premises of goal setting theory is that an employee’s conscious intentions (goals) are primary determinants of task related motivation since goals direct their thoughts and actions (Locke, 1968). She also explained that Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory’s research suggested that motivation is composed of two largely unrelated dimensions which first is job-related factors which can prevent dissatisfaction, but do not promote employees’ growth and development (hygiene) and second is job-related factors that encourage growth (motivators). Needs for salary, recognition and responsibility, for example, have been shown to operate both as motivators and as hygiene factors (Maidani, 1991). Thus, extrinsic rewards such as good pay can increase intrinsic motivation if they are perceived as providing information about competence (Wiersma, 1992, p. 102).

Literature Review

Motivation as defined in Oxford dictionary as desire or willingness to do something or enthusiasms keeps staff up to date and maintains interest and motivation. However in businessdictionary.com, it defines that motivation consist of internal and external factor that stimulate passion and energy in people with interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to achieve goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as intensity of desire or need, incentive or value of the goal, and expectation of the individual. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. Bartol and Martin (1998) describe motivation as a power that strengthens behavior, gives route to behavior, and triggers the tendency to continue (Farhad et al, 2011). This explanation identifies that in order to attain assured targets or individuals must be satisfactorily energetic and be clear about their destinations. According to Bedeian, (1993), motivation is an internal drives to satisfy an unsatisfied need and the will to accomplish. Motivation is a procedure that is initiated through a physiological or psychological want that stimulates a performance that is intended at an objective. It is the concluding product of interface among personality behavior and organizational distinctiveness.

In the journal "Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational Effectiveness" by Quratul-Ain Manzoor from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, research has suggested that reward now cause satisfaction of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee (Kalimullah et al, 2010). Rewards are management tools that hopefully contribute to firm’s effectiveness by influencing individual or group behavior. All businesses use pay, promotion, bonuses or other types of rewards to motivate and encourage high level performances of employees (Reena et al, 2009). No one works for free, nor should they. Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting. It has the supremacy to magnetize, maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity (Adeyinka et al, 2007).

In the article "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation" by Roland(2003), substantial body of experimental and field evidence indicates that extrinsic motivation are contingent rewards and can sometimes conflict with intrinsic motivation which is the individual's desire to perform the task for its own sake. As a result, people with a stake in his performance have strong incentives to manipulate signals relevant to his self-knowledge. Given that effort and ability are usually complements in the production of performance, they will want to boost his self-confidence, as well as his interest in the task.

Edwin Locke and Gary Latham (1990), explain that according to the theory, there appear to be two cognitive determinants of behavior: values and intentions. A goal is defined simply as what the individual is trying to do. Goals also affect behavior of job performance through other mechanisms like challenging goals mobilize energy, lead to higher effort, and increase persistent effort. Goals motivate people to develop strategies that will enable them to perform at the required goal levels. Accomplishing the goal can lead to satisfaction and further motivation, or frustration and lower motivation if the goal is not accomplished.

According to Rob H.Kamery in "Employee Motivation as It Relates to Effectiveness, Efficiency, Productivity and Performance", performance measurements may include individual or team goals, departmental objectives, or overall organizational profit. The basis of programs is that by making a portion of an employee's compensation earned base on some specific performance objective, he or she will be more focused and devote more effort toward attaining that objective (Robbins & Coulter, 1996). Rob H.Kamery mention that based on Buhler (1998) the key to motivating employees is to understand that not all employees are the same. Something different will makes each employee to perform better. In order to achieve motivation, managers must know and understand employee condition but not all needs. Each employee has a different set of values and personal experiences that brought them to where they are today.

As in journal of ‘Impact of Employee Motivation on Performance (Productivity) In Private Organization’ by Nupur Chaudhary, and Dr. Bharti Sharma, they explain that motivated employees are inclined to be more productive than non-motivated employees. If employee will satisfied and happy then he/she will do his /her work in a very impressive way, and then the result will be good, on the other hand motivated employee will motivate other employees in office. A safe and non-threatening work environment is necessary to maintain a high level of employee motivation. Flexible human resource policies, flexible time, work from home, childcare also be liable to have happier and more motivated workers.

Richard M.Steers, Richard T.Mowday and Debra L.Shapiro describe in ‘Journal of The Future of Work Motivation Theory’ that approaches to understanding human motivation date from the time of the Greek philosophers and focus on the concept of hedonism as a principle driving force in behavior. Individuals were seen as focusing their efforts on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. As a result, behavioral scientists began searching for more empirically based models to explain motivation. These early models were instinct theories, such as those proposed by James, Freud, and McDougall. Instead of viewing behavior as highly rational, these theorists argued that much behavior resulted from instinct, defined by McDougall. James identified a list of such instincts that included locomotion, curiosity, sociability, fear, jealousy, and sympathy.

Aim of Study

There is few aim of study in this research which is to understand how the motivation moves the employee. Firstly is to identify the problems faced by employees. By understanding the problem face by the employee, management will able to use a suitable action to motivate the employee. Secondly is to understand the task objective of the sales force. Every employee has their task objective to achieve. It’s not only about buying or selling, but in how to solve the problem that occurs within the sales activity. Dealing this matter could help to increase the good feedback and motivate the employee and the company. Third is to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic needs of the employees. Employee mostly is work within the needs of intrinsic and extrinsic. Some employee could able to work much better with the better reward or promotion. This fulfills the needs of extrinsic. However to some employee, they only just wanted to gain experience of working. This fulfills the needs of intrinsic or personal needs. Fourth is to propose to the company’s management a new approach of goal setting. After all the research and analysis, newer approach of goal will propose to the company. This is to acknowledge the company regarding the problem of their overall employee. Usually one company does not able to know all the problem faces by the entire employee until there is some problem occur. The final aim of study is to understand and learn in how to apply the motivation skill in future. This situation may occur not in one company but majority of the company especially in big company.

Methodology

Subject

The target subject of this research is the company employee that have been work in the sales force. They are the key figure that help is performing the company objective. The company KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd has about 45 until 56 staff work in the sales forces. A short interview sections with the one of the director, Ms. Angie Lim, have been conduct as for additional understanding about this company.

Procedure

The methodology used in this study is survey method through distribution of questionnaire to respondents. Respondents of this study are as mention in the subject above. A total of 50 questionnaire have been given out to the employee from headquarter outlet, three Maxis Executives Partnership outlet located at Jalan Kapar, Shah Alam Convention Center Mall, and Setia City Mall, and two outlet branch located at Aeon Bukit Raja, and Samsung Setia City Mall.

Both the college student and the working adult versions aim to capture the major elements of intrinsic motivation (self-determination, competence, task involvement, curiosity, enjoyment, and interest) and extrinsic motivation (concerns with competition, evaluation, recognition, money or other tangible incentives, and constraint by others). The instrument is scored on two primary scales, each subdivided into 2 secondary scales. The WPI has meaningful factor structures, adequate internal consistency, good short-term test-retest reliability, and good longer term stability. Moreover, WPI scores are related in meaningful ways to other questionnaire and behavioral measures of motivation, as well as personality characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors.

Most constructs/measures were of multiple items, which required the respondent to rate items on a scale. In this research, motivation of intrinsic needs and extrinsic needs was measured with The Work Preference Inventory: Accessing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation designed by Amabile, T. M. Hill, K. G. Hennessey, B.A. & Tighe, E.M. (1994). The description of the survey is about the intrinsic motivation is the desire to perform a task for its own sake and extrinsic motivation is the desire to perform a task due to promised rewards or punishment. The Work Preference Inventory is design to assess the degree to which individuals perceive themselves to be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to do what they do. Moreover, the preferred motivation type can be compare with type of men and women.

Instrument

The Work Preference Inventory uses a four-point category scale under the truth scale ranging from almost never (1) to almost always (4). The scoring point are range in (1) = 1 point, (2) = 2 point, (3) = 3 point, and (4) = 4 point. However, certain questionnaire is attempt to reverse score point where the scoring point are range in (1) = 4 point, (2) = 3 point, (3) = 2 point, and (4) = 1 point. Furthermore, to access intrinsic motivation, the score point is by adding the number in response to questionnaire number 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13. 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 27, 28, and 30 except questionnaire number 9 and 14 are reversing score point. As for access to extrinsic motivation, the score point is by adding the number in response to questionnaire number 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 29 except for questionnaire number 1, 16, and 22 are reversing score point. The higher the better the score the person will earn.

Design

The design of this research is based on quantitative research. Quantitative experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a survey analysis, leading to a final answer, and a narrowing down of possible directions for follow up. The result of the survey question are the measurement to decide if the employee’s motivational level. However it would range into two different type of gender and two different of motivational level. Nonetheless this research also categorize as descriptive research designs. These types of experiments are often used to judge the habits of customers or by companies wishing to judge the morale of staff by psychologists and social scientists to observe behaviors without affecting them in any way.

Results

Data Collected

Based on the survey form collected from headquarter, only 37 survey are fill and the remaining of 13 survey are not fill. According to the Head of Branch Outlet Manager, Mrs. Sally, she said that about 5-6 staff is on leave and applying medical while the balance of 7 forms is the refuse to fill. According to her explanation, she says those 7 staff is the most senior staff which they had been works in this company for more than 6 year. She also comments that they believe this survey is to question them on their service towards the company. Other than that the rest were fill up with no question. But then for the 5-6 staff, is likely unavailable for them to answer after the next day.

With the scoring guideline given, the result of highest scoring is 60 and the lowest scoring is on 15. However, the expected level of mean score for the survey is approximately 45 for male gender and 39 for female gender. Furthermore these mean scoring will determine the level of the employee as the scoring below than mean score will prove the lower motivation for the intrinsic level or extrinsic level. Here is the sample of scoring for both genders:

 

 

 

Female Work Preference Inventory Scoring Level

 

 

 

Min

Mean

Max

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

0

39

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Male Work Preference Inventory Scoring Level

 

 

 

Min

Mean

Max

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

45

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hereby the result was divided into group according to the branch outlet. The frequencies of answer on the question are according to the number of person taken. The data of frequencies of answer in descriptive figure collected from SPSS software.

Group 1: KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd Headquarter

Group 2: NPD AEON Bukit Raja

Question

1

2

3

4

Question

1

2

3

4

1*

0

4

8

0

1*

0

1

4

0

2

1

3

5

3

2

0

0

2

3

3

2

4

5

1

3

0

1

4

0

4

1

4

6

1

4

0

1

3

1

5

0

0

6

6

5

0

1

2

2

6

1

1

6

4

6

0

0

2

3

7

0

3

9

0

7

0

2

0

3

8

0

2

9

1

8

0

2

2

1

9*

1

1

5

5

9*

0

1

2

2

10

1

4

6

1

10

0

1

1

3

11

2

3

5

2

11

0

3

1

1

12

2

3

5

2

12

0

1

4

0

13

3

3

4

2

13

0

1

4

0

14*

2

1

7

2

14*

0

1

1

3

15

2

2

8

0

15

0

1

3

1

16*

3

6

2

1

16*

1

2

1

1

17

1

0

9

2

17

0

1

3

1

18

2

4

4

2

18

0

2

3

0

19

1

2

7

2

19

0

1

3

1

20

1

1

5

5

20

0

2

3

0

21

1

2

5

4

21

0

2

3

0

22*

4

2

3

3

22*

0

0

3

2

23

2

7

2

1

23

0

4

1

0

24

1

2

9

0

24

0

4

1

0

25

2

0

10

0

25

0

1

1

3

26

1

2

8

1

26

0

0

4

1

27

2

4

6

0

27

0

0

2

3

28

1

1

6

4

28

0

2

1

2

29

2

2

5

3

29

0

1

3

1

30

1

1

7

3

30

0

0

1

4

M=

4

Taken=

12

M=

3

Taken=

5

F=

8

N.taken=

8

F=

2

N.taken=

0

Table 1 Table 2

As from what we seen here above are a sample of the group 1 is from the KTS Cellular Sdn Bhd headquarter in the table 1. The totals of 12 staff were taken the questionnaire, 5 staff was not answering the survey question and 3 staff is on leave or off day. Meanwhile the group 2 is from NPD AEON Bukit Raja in the table 2. The totals of 5 staff were taken the questionnaire.

Group 3: Maxis Executives Partnership

Group 4: Samsung, MEPS

Question

1

2

3

4

Question

1

2

3

4

1*

0

3

5

0

1*

1

4

4

3

2

1

0

6

1

2

0

5

5

2

3

1

4

3

0

3

2

1

3

6

4

0

1

7

0

4

0

0

9

3

5

0

0

7

1

5

0

0

9

3

6

0

3

3

2

6

1

3

7

1

7

0

2

5

1

7

0

1

6

5

8

0

2

6

0

8

0

1

5

6

9*

0

1

2

5

9*

1

1

7

3

10

0

3

3

2

10

0

0

5

7

11

0

2

5

1

11

1

0

6

5

12

1

3

4

0

12

5

2

3

2

13

0

2

6

0

13

4

0

5

3

14*

0

2

3

3

14*

0

0

5

7

15

0

1

5

2

15

1

1

7

3

16*

1

2

5

0

16*

2

5

3

2

17

0

2

5

1

17

4

1

3

4

18

1

6

1

0

18

2

4

4

2

19

0

1

5

2

19

0

1

4

7

20

1

2

3

2

20

0

0

8

4

21

0

1

3

4

21

1

1

6

4

22*

0

4

4

0

22*

3

4

1

4

23

1

2

5

0

23

0

2

4

6

24

0

3

4

1

24

0

1

3

8

25

0

1

6

1

25

0

0

7

5

26

1

3

4

0

26

5

0

4

3

27

0

2

5

1

27

0

0

7

5

28

0

0

7

1

28

0

0

5

7

29

1

1

5

1

29

0

1

3

8

30

0

1

3

4

30

0

1

5

6

M=

3

Taken=

8

M=

4

Taken=

12

F=

5

N.taken=

0

F=

8

N.taken=

5

Table 3 Table 4

The next table 3 is from Maxis Executive Partnership Jalan Kapar. The totals of 8 staff were taken the questionnaire. Sample of the group 4 is from the Samsung & MEPS outlet from Setia City Mall in the table 5. The totals of 12 staff were taken the questionnaire, 2 staff was not answering the survey question and 3 staff is on leave or off day. The asterisk (*) is the question that using reversal score point. The table below are individual score collection base on branch.

Headquarter

 

NPD

 

 

 

Maxis

 

 

Samsung MEPS

 

Male

 

Female

Male

 

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

Int

Ext

43

43

40

36

46

47

45

44

36

38

38

37

42

40

45

43

37

43

44

40

42

40

34

47

42

40

39

44

43

42

54

51

34

47

45

41

45

43

43

45

46

46

46

48

48

42

39

49

45

39

40

49

43

38

40

43

39

40

39

41

40

44

45

39

43

45

39

46

48

45

43

40

43

47

27

25

42

50

Statistical Application

The final stage of overall calculation is from is the final total score of all employees according to the branch outlet. This is the overall mean by using this formula

A+b+c+d+e+f….

Total employee

The result of this show how much motivate the employee is in one outlet. The possible of the office environment bring the effect to the staff as well.

Discussion and Summary

Base on Result

Based on the result, this research proves that the motivation of the employee between gender show a different level as both gender have an opposite level of needs and motivation level. First we look at the level of male intrinsic from all branches. The entire branch outlet is lower than mean of motivation needs. This tells that mostly male staff is not satisfied with their current condition that not fulfill their internal needs. The only highest intrinsic level is staff from the NPD AEON Bukit Raja which they are 44.33 point nearly reaches the mean at 45point and the lowest at 38.25 point which is headquarter branch. However the extrinsic level form male staff consider as average where their lowest reach at 41 point from Maxis Jalan Kapar and the highest goes to headquarter which they reach 45.5 point. The intrinsic level of female staff are all pass the mean level requirement which is 39 point with the lower at 39.5 point from NPD Aeon. The highest level of intrinsic female goes to 45.63 point where belongs to staff from Setia City Mall (Samsung & MEPS). This refer that they are work with full satisfaction level of internal needs where no worry within themselves. The last female extrinsic level highest goes to NPD Aeon with highest number of 45.5 point while the lowest fall to female staff from headquarter at 38.25 point.

Summary of Research

As a summary of the overall result, range from each level of needs and motivation. First of all from the intrinsic level, this indicate that most staff did not feel inner fulfillment. Example like safety, happiness, enjoy of work and more. According to Suzanne G.Benson that explain "one of most important key of motivation is by understanding and motivating using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Basic survival needs must be met with wages which in turn provide shelter, food, water, heat, clothing, and other needs." But to extrinsic level is everything reverse from the intrinsic where extrinsic are external force while intrinsic are internal force. It is a central theme of economics that incentives promote effort and performance, and there is a lot of evidence that they often do (e.g. Gibbons (1997), Lazear (2000)). In other words, contingent rewards serve as "positive reinforces" for the desired behavior according to the article by Roland explain that substantial body of experimental and field evidence indicates that extrinsic motivation are contingent rewards and can sometimes conflict with intrinsic motivation which is the individual's desire to perform the task for its own sake.

Limitation

During conducting this research, there are few obstacles and limitation that slowing down the whole process and some even declining in assisting. First limitation is the type of questionnaire is not easy to find. There are some of question can be found online but they come without a valid scoring guideline or some are not with the scoring guideline. However with the help of several lecturer and friend, they helped me finding the survey question. Second limitation is hard to approach to all employee especially branch outlet. Sending to different location by my own caused a lot of time consuming and some of the staff is not available to as they are busy with their work. However to deal such matter, Head of Branch Outlet manager volunteer to assist in sending out to the branch outlet via dispatch boy. Third limitation understands of the purpose and content of this survey distribution. Majority of employee are Chinese and Malay staff which had trouble in understanding the survey question. In order to solve their problem, I had to explain one by one question to each of the staff. After few hours explaining this, I decided to Google translate with assist with of the staff employee. This could deal the matter although the translations are not in perfect as like the existing question. Forth limitation is some staff is not even trying to answer the survey question accordingly. The reason is they got no sufficient time to take time and answer accordingly. Only small amount of number are simply answering the question where detected about 2 person. Nonetheless I manage to explain each question to them one by one and they answer by verbally. Fifth limitation is several senior staff declined to answer the survey question. According to Mrs. Sally, they are not interested in doing this since they have been work in this company more than 6 year. Furthermore, some of the employee is not in duty or off day, on leave, or in medical leave. Nonetheless, these limitations are unable to solve.

Recommendation

After all the research and conclusion above, there is some solution and recommendation will propose. First solution is to understand the working environment and then look into how to increase to employee internal force by using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It’s a basic force usually including all aspects of the business, in terms of both tangible and intangible factors.

Besides that we must look into the A theorists by the name of Abraham Maslow, has concluded that before we can be intrinsically motivated we must first satisfy some of the basic human needs.  This allow increasing the level of motivation to work. It is not necessary to done all but atleast two of the Maslow’s basic levels of needs. According to Maslow there are five basic levels of human needs. First is a physiological need where we are motivated to satisfy needs that ensure our physical survival.  Needs in this group include food, water, air, shelter, and clothing.  Most people have satisfied their physiological needs allowing them to concentrate on higher level needs. Second is safety needs when security needs include, order, stability, routine, familiarity, control over one’s life and environment, certainty and health. Third is social needs or love and belonging needs especially love, affection, belonging and acceptance.  Forth is esteem needs where all people have a need for stable, firmly based, usually high evaluation of themselves for self-respect or self-esteem and for the esteem of others. These needs may therefore be classified into two subsidiary sets.  These are, first, the desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery of competence, confidence, independence and freedom.  Second, we have what we call the desire for reputation or prestige status, fame, glory, dominance, importance, recognition, dignity or appreciation. Fifth is the need for self-actualization where this level of hierarchy is concentrated on an individual being able to reach their full potential a human being.  Once someone has satisfied the first four levels of needs then they have the ability to concentrate on functioning to their highest potential.

Second recommendation is provide a goal setting task for the employee. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as intensity of desire or need, incentive or value of the goal, and expectation of the individual. Every goal setting give a different satisfaction level. Bartol and Martin (1998) describe motivation as a power that strengthens behavior, gives route to behavior, and triggers the tendency to continue (Farhad et al, 2011). This explanation identifies that in order to attain assured targets or individuals must be satisfactorily energetic and be clear about their destinations. According to Bedeian, (1993), motivation is an internal drives to satisfy an unsatisfied need and the will to accomplish. It is an internal strength that drives individuals to pull off personal and organizational goals (Reena et al, 2009). Based on hundreds of studies, the major finding of goal setting is that individuals who are provided with specific, difficult but attainable goals perform better than those given easy, nonspecific, or no goals at all. At the same time, however, the individuals must have sufficient ability, accept the goals, and receive feedback related to performance (Latham, 2003). A goal that is too easily attained will not bring about the desired increments in performance. The key point is that a goal must be difficult as well as specific for it to raise performance. However, there is a limit to this effect. Although organization members will work hard to reach challenging goals, they will only do so when the goals are within their capability. As goals become too difficult, performance suffers because organization members reject the goals as unreasonable and unattainable. A major factor in attainability of a goal is self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997). If employees have high self-efficacies, they will tend to set higher personal goals under the belief that they are attainable. The first key to successful goal setting is to build and reinforce employees’ self-efficacy. In the end, if they success in achieving the goal, they will earn bonus from extrinsic and intrinsic too. In term of extrinsic, employee may earn reward of the achieving the goals. While in intrinsic, employee feel the satisfaction of achievement and gain the knowledge to achieve those objective.

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