The Concept Of Neuro Linguistic Programming Business Essay
Ileana Georgiana Gheorghe
Oil-Gases University of Ploieşti, Bd. Bucureşti 39, Ploieşti, e-mail: email@example.com
This article aims at presenting the NLP concept related to the recruitment and selection processes. In this respect, we exposed the basic NLP levels which help very much to the personal development of employees in an organization and to the development of its own organizational culture.
Key words: neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), organizational culture, recruitment, selection
Classification JEL: M31
1. Introduction. The concept of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)
The concept of NLP, defined Neuro-Linguistic Programming, abbreviated NLP, was created around 1976 by Richard Bandler (mathematician) who took and synthesized a series of concepts which previously appeared in cybernetics and systems theory.
The name of neuro-linguistic programming comes from the three fields it reunites: N from neurology (the instruments used are the mind and how we speak), L from linguistics (the instruments used are the language and how we use it and how it affects us) and P from programming (the instruments used are our actions and how we ordinate them to reach our goals)  .
Joseph O'Connor regards NLP as a science of human behaviour and proposes its treatment as epistemology, as methodology and as technology.
As epistemology it holds a system of knowledge and values, as methodology it offers processes and procedures for the application of knowledge and values and as technology it offers techniques (tools) of application of knowledge and values  . This concept has been used recently in the acquisition of efficiency regarding the management of communication and change in an organization.
NLP principles and methods are based on successful behaviour patterns (good practice patterns), which have already proven their effectiveness in certain fields  .
This pattern is considered very useful in the study of organizational culture and has become a preoccupation of the last decade because of the larger and larger complexity of organizations.
Their complexity is due to technological changes (IT development), the encouragment of modern production methods (development of industrial robots), and changes regarding the environment (development of eco-marketing or green products  ).
In particular the technological improvements have led to a series of changes regarding the type of organizational culture (these organizations are on the lookout for qualified experts at high level who use their own judgment and experience to make technical decisions where managers are not sufficiently qualified to do it). Dilts Robert developed in this direction – which means in terms of an organization – five logical levels of change (also known as neurological levels or logical levels of thinking).
The five logical levels of change are presented in (fig.1). and are implemented in any organization in which the management of change is developed  .
Fig. 1 – Scheme of the five logical levels of change
Source: Dilts Robert, Visionary Leadership Skills: Creating a World to Which People
Want to Belong, Meta Publications, Capitola, CA, 1996
1. Goal –For who? It is about the connection with a wider system (the community).
What impact do you have in your community, in the town where you live and work, in your culture and the others′ culture (current society is multicultural) or in the culture of your own organization?
2. Mission – Who? Who are you as individual or company? What role do you play in reaching the goal proposed? How do you see yourself as a person / organization – for example I am a successful person
3. Values – Why? Why do you do a certain thing? In what do you believe or what do you treasure most? As individual, you may think that you have the freedom to do anything. Or you can treasure/appreciate honesty. From the company point of view, a company can treasure good services offered to customers and/or welfare and motivation of the staff.
4. Strategies – How? How do you do things? As individual or company, what are the capabilities, skills, stategies and plans of action?
5. Behaviour – Where? When? With whom? Where, when and with whom do you display your behaviour? What external influences will it determine?
These logical levels of change can be used by organizations to determine a series of positive changes in the organization and to create added value.
2. The process of recruitment and selection of employees and the application of NLP principles and methods
The main purpose of any recruitment and selection process is the prediction of performance at workplace. The evaluation of personality of applicants in the recruitment and selection stage represents one of the most effective strategies and over 80% of successful organizations use such instruments.
The benefits of a correctly done recruitment and selection process eliminate the time invested in interviews with unsuitable applicants and the human resources managers receive fast accurate information about the critical aspects of each applicant and thus it increases the probability of hiring suitable applicants for the position and the organization and the increase of performance in the organization and the reduction of staff fluctuation.
Nowadays the recruitment and selection process is regarded from three perspectives:
The perspective of added value- which means that the HR department has to create a human resources strategy which supports the new employees who bring added value.
The new employees who bring added value form groups who can be on different hierarchical levels and in these conditions we appoint a route of value in which are highlighted those processes in which the input is turned into output with high added value – output which gets directly to the customer.
A major contribution in appropriate proportions and to the client also has the type of organizational culture in which the new employees create added value. Between the existing type of organizational culture, the new employees who create added value and NLP model there is a close connection.
The five neurological levels from NLP model can be transposed in the coordinates of an organization – which encourages the culture oriented towards personal development and which tries to measure exactly the size of its need for change and the employees of which create added value – as follows:
Level 1 Identity: Vision and Mission;
Level 2 Belief: Culture and Philosophy;
Level 3 Capacities: Knowledge and Skills;
Level 4 Behaviour: Practice and Customs;
Level 5 Environment: Circumstances, Equipment, Location.
Nowadays the preoccupation regarding the five neurological levels from NLP model and their transposition in terms of an organization brings up the answer to the following question: "If I worked (in an organization, what expectations would there be of me and how I should behave  to be able to identify myself with the existing type of organizational culture, in conditions of real competition?" - and how should I do my job to create added value which can be measured? The answer to this question is closely connected to: the personal motivation of employees, the actions of employees who generate culture, the extent to which influences the fact that the organization is run by rules (which means that it generates predictability but also rigidity), or the organization is run by values (which means that it generates flexibility, capacity of adjustment and innovation, but it is also less predictable), the positive or negative changes which can appear in the organization if it uses and understands correctly the five neurological levels.
The need for change of organizational cultures is rooted in the appearance of the current economic crisis – crisis which changed the economic environment and repositioned organizational culture towards itself and towards its own employees (and exactly in these conditions the organizational culture lays emphasis on how things are done, not about what are things to do or about what is to do in the organization).
So the model of the five neurological levels can be used to identify a new synergetic model, which is POE (Personal, Organizational, Entrepreneurial) model which tries to give integrated solutions to problems at personal – organizational – entrepreneurial level.
Entrepreneurial level (E)
Who am I ?
My system of values, beliefs
The system of values (system of values of the organization which highlights employees to create added value)
Strategy of organization (from a green perspective)
What do I do ?
Type of organizational culture (type of behaviour accepted in the organizational culture) – the recruitment and selection process based on top-down values has an important role
My environment of personal development
Internal and external environment of the organization (macro and micro-environment of the organization)
Table 1 –POE Model
Source: Model adapted and developed by Dilts Robert, Visionary Leadership Skills:
Creating a World to Which People Want to Belong, Meta Publications, Capitola, CA,1996, page 55 - 60
3. Perspective based on top-down values
Any organization which has its five neurological levels aligned is capable of maintaining excellence because the organization and its staff share the same beliefs and values and go in the same direction.
In the event that the values of the organization are at level of top management team, they imprint identity to organizational culture and the best way of promoting the identity of your own organizational culture is done through the recruitment and selection process – in agreement, of course, with the values desired and promoted by the organization.
If we identify a recruitment and selection process based on top-down values – the organization can hire the best and the most qualified (specialized) staff from a field of interest for the organization – but – if between him and his job – on one hand and organizational culture – on the other hand – there is no compatibility relationship, the selection is definitely not the best one and that person will leave the organization shortly after hire.
There are studies lying at the basis of this statement, which is the staff fluctuation is reduced by 30% if in the recruitment and selection process are used instruments which can really identify the values of the potential employees and the type of organizational culture in which they would fit  .
In this respect – the culture of an organization can be helped or destroyed by certain employees, so we can speak of a matrix of types of employees (The Matrix of types of employees).
WITH HIGH POTENTIAL
Fig. 2. Matrix of types of employees
Source: Model adapted and developed by Eric C Sinoway and Merrill Meadow Uncommon Wisdom to Inspire Your Life's Work, St. Martins Publishing House, 2012 , page 239 – 250
Stars are the most loved employees, because they do the right thing (they acquired a good performance) and are those who always choose the right way (they behave in a way which accepts to build the organizational culture desired).
Employees with high potential are the employees whose behaviour is treasured because they do things the right way, but need more exercise at competence level (with support at cognitive level – trainings and at emotional level – encouragements, moral support, they can be the future stars in the organization).
Zombi are the employees who do not have performances (are mediocre) and their behaviour does not correspond to the cultural aspirations of the organization. Their capacity of doing harm is somehow attenuated by their lack of credibility. They do not bring added value in the organization, but the damages they cause to organizational culture are still limited.
Vampires are the employees who represent a real threat for the organization because they have good and very good performances, but their goal in the organization is contrary to the organizational culture desired. Because their performances are good and very good – they acquire power and influence, and in time manage to gather around them employees who listen to them and follow them in their action – and above all – share with them their set of values which is totally different from the set of values of the organization.
Therefore, we can say that Vampires and Zombi can attack in an organization the Stars and the Employees with potential by the fact that they do not support organizational culture and its common values and try by any means to impose their own values which are totally different from the values of the organization and thus the values of the organization and its performances get lost in this fight which creates in the end non-value and not added value.
To be able to bring performance to the organization and create added value organizational culture must be assimilated to a strategy which supports leadership and responsibilization of employees since the stage of recruitment and selection of the employees – thus creating a real commitment between them and the organization.
4. Perspective of compatibility between organizational culture and the leadership style approached
If we start always from what we treasure and appreciate we will reach the conclusion that we will reward and sanction the same elements at those with whom we collaborate.
That is why, when we speak of the recruitment and selection of managers future leaders (top management or middle management) it is as much more important and necessarily to make sure that there is really compatibility between their values and organizational culture. Managers have to instil the values of the organization to their own employees with whom they must form a team and get out of the comfort area  . The exit from the comfort area implies change. The use of neuro-logical levels to explain and understand organizational change implies the knowledge in a direct and involved way of the model of the two diagonals (diagonal of change and diagonal of resistance) – (see Fig. 3).
If the change of the strategy of the organization means that the staff is encouraged to act differently at behaviour level but without receiving first the necessary training because it has renounced to the budget of training and perfection – it means that the diagonal of resistance is more powerful than the diagonal of change.
Diagonal of resistance
State of fact 2
State of fact 1
DISCOMFORT, COST, RISK
Diagonal of change changechangeschimbîrezistenței
Fig. 3. Model of the two diagonals. Source: Model adapted and developed by Adrian Florea Three lessons about change Magazine Manager Express – about people, development Decision and action, no.1, February 2013, page 32 - 33
If the change of the organization strategy means that the staff is encouraged to act differently at behaviour level and the staff received the necessary training and the change of strategy is done based on a working platform (which means: managers must have clear, well measurable objectives from all three perspectives: human, material and informational. Each member of the team has to have individual objectives correlated with the general objectives of the manager and with the common performance objectives of the organization and with the objectives related to the development of organizational culture by the implementation of systems which bring performance, so to support exactly the expected change) – it means that the diagonal of change is more powerful than the diagonal of resistance.
It is very important that in an organization it is understood by the whole team what are the power poles, the games of influence which intensify or erode the dynamics of the management team and of course, the compatibility which is established between organizational culture and leadership style.
In order to establish if there is compatibility between organizational culture and the leadership style, we should apply and analyse the test called MVPI  (MVPI is a test of motives, values, preferences and inventory of qualities).
INTERESTS OF STATUS
The desire of being known, of becoming famous
The desire of having success, getting involved in competitions, producing impact
The desire of having fun, experimenting emotions, orientation to variety and pleasure
The desire of serving others, improving society, helping the underprivileged
The desire to be frequently in social contact
Preoccupation for ethics, for family values, for devotion and responsibility
The desire of having a structured, ordered, predictable life
The desire for large incomes, for profit and business opportunities
Preoccupation for style, form, quality and fashion
The desire of using concrete data to make decisions and solve problems
Table 2. MVPI Test,
Neuro-Linguistic Programming is one of the new concepts used in the acquisition of efficiency in the management of communication and in the management of change of an organization.
We can say that NLP principles and methods are based on successful behaviour patterns (good practice patterns) and these models are considered very useful in the study of organizational culture and has become a preoccupation of the last decade because of the larger and larger complexity of organizations. The organizations, like any living body, have to become organizations based on learning, which can change and adjust to external environment which is in ongoing change.
Because of the external environment which is in ongoing change – the recruitment and selection process regarded from the three perspectives: of added value, of top-down value and compatibility between organizational culture and leadership style – has the clearly defined purpose of prediction of performance at workplace and the evaluation of the personality of applicants since this stage.
The application of NLP principles and methods – so the model of the five neurological levels – in the recruitment and selection process will determine the identification of a new synergetic model called POA model which tries to give integrated solutions to problems at personal – organizational – entrepreneurial level.