The Drives Underlie Motivation Business Essay
Motivation can be defined as giving the interest, reason and incentive that may cause a certain action or an exact behavior and it is the process that initiates, directs and maintains the goal-oriented behaviors. The two main kinds of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic .Firstly, the intrinsic motivation is the internal one and it occurs when people are forced to do anything is out of gratification, importance and desire. Secondly, the extrinsic motivation may occur when an external factor force the person to do anything (Drucker, P.F. & Maciarello, J, 2004).
SADRI, G.and BOWEN, R. (2011) adds that motivation relates to a range of psychological processes in which it guides the individual toward one goal or defined target and cause that person to keep pursuing this goal .Motivation is often described in terms of direction which aim to choose one activity over another and intensity as the number of the employee trials and finally persistence of holding a certain behavior against the obstacles may be faced.
Hard workers, high work quality and great quantities of work can be gained if the organization can motivate their employees and in this case they can be easily engaged along the organization culture and behavior , therefore they will encouraged to be a part of the organization structure and not to search for other opportunities .
2.2 Drives Underlie Motivation
For motivating the employees to do their best in the work, they have to live in the environment that satisfy the essential emotional drives which are the drive to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend. These four drives are highly connected to our brains, therefore when they are satisfied, it will be reflected directly on the emotions and behavior (Nohria, N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L., 2008).
These essential four drives are more illustrated as follows:
1- The drive to acquire:
Almost people are driven to acquire the rare goods or services that boost the sense of happiness. If this drive is fulfilled, people may feel delighted or otherwise, they can feel sadness and frustration. Only not for the basic needs like food, clothing or even shelter this phenomenon can be applied but for others like travel, enjoyment activities and entertainment and In addition, an event that improves social status like upward promotion or getting a new desk in the company or be assigned for a new challenging project.
2-The drive to Bond
In general, it is the tends towards the relativity in which you always compare between what you have and what the others owns and not with you and also the voracious of always want a lot and desire the more. And that may explains globally the interest of the people to care about their main compensation packages but that beside the interest of what the others have as well and not to care just with their own one.
It describes also that imposing the salary covers is very hard to apply. Almost the animals with deferent kinds and types may bond with their mum and dad, the type groups or even the large family but the humans it may extents a more to reach the bond with large grouping like the bond connection with the corporate, organizations, social associations and nations.
In case the drive to bond can met, it always associated to a strong feeling and emotions and it seems to be a positive one like the love to others or to you and caring but when it not met for the drive to bond, it goes associated and linked to a negative feelings or emotions like to be alone or sad all the time. While working usually the driving to the bond accounts for the huge increase in the motivation for the workers and employees to feel proud of be a part of this organization or company and in the same time to feel losing the morale if this company or organization employees cheat them or con them. It may also explain the main reason to find the employees feel it hard to break out the dividing of the groups and grudge between colleges (Cole, C. L., 2000).
The attachment to the closed groups or union is normally can be found but it’s totally right that desire and the ability to be attached to the larger and most strong unions may lead at the end that the employees may be more care and interested to the whole organization and big structures than to the small groups like the team or even the family.
3- The drive to comprehend.
To comprehend, is the thing we all need a lot feel and sense the world around our lives and that to grantee producing the new methodologies ,theories ,high technologies ,science and culture that usually make the events more clear and any suggest seems to be reasonable for actions or even responses. But at the time you found the things without the desired sense, consequently you are frustrated and disappointed and you are re-energized in generally for the challenge to work out the answers (Vora, M.K., 2004).
In companies and workplaces in general, the drive to comprehend may be accounted for the need and desire to make and set up a new benefit or any valuable contribution others can use or gain. Workers be motivated by tasks and jobs that may challenge them and give the ability to grow up and gain new knowledge, and they can lose the interest by those that it seems to be repetitive and finally may lead to the dead end. Workers with the rare and valued talents when they feel they cheated or lose the trust often leaves this company or the organization to find the job they feel challenged and enforce them to start with new spirit to achieve what it makes them more satisfied (Nohria et al. ,2008).
4- The drive to defend.
Is the drive to defend ourselves, our belongings and achievements, the family, close friends and group ,your own ideas and the way of life against unplanned threats may be externally .The drive to defend may be rooted in the basics of the response commonly to the most of the animals. For the humans, it raise for not as aggressive or defending attitude but also to create the organizations and groups that promote fairness that have clear targets and able the people to show their new ideas and valuable opinions.
If you succeed to achieve the drive to defend, that definitely will let you feel the safety and self confidence but if you could not that will lead to a strong negative feelings like unsafe and dissatisfaction. However this drive can show many of what the majority of the people are dislike and almost resist the change and it is the reason employees can be frustrated in case of any business acquisition or companies merging which is a major change the for any worker can face even it is the only and unique solution that the company or organization can follow to survive and keep working in the market (Spector, P.E., 2008).
Like if a day your company told you that you are rewarded for being the best achiever and the most successful employee in the company you and the coming step is to own a new reorganization in the team structure which is a very rapid and hard challenge to your drive to defend at that time .Once, the other competitor may use this drive to grasp this employee and exploits the frustration may be felt by this employee and for sure will be direct hit for the employer to lose this caliber worker along this challenge his employee is facing.
All the previous drives already classified and clearly described before are independent and cannot subistiued, re-changed or reordered. Not only the salary you are paying to your workers may make him feel excited about the job function and nature although the bonging is not found yet the work itself without any valued meaning or even the works still suffer from defending feelings. it is very hard to get the drive to bond for people paid a little or working a boring task and so you can get workers doing just the job but not to take the best of them for just they need money or to fulfill their urgent basic needs and for sure you may lose them suddenly at any time if they found their aim from the job with any other employer .Finally, fulfilling the four drives is the only way to motivate your workers as long as you can. (Nohria et al., 2008).
2.3 Basic Motivation Concepts
Motivating the individuals or the employees in any organization is not an easy task can be done and get the good results you need to build on your strategy and put the objectives helps in achieving the organization goals. And so, it requires a lot of work on the organization level or workers level to maintain the goals and find the solid ground which is essential for any corporate or organization success.
The aggressive market completion enforce all corporate and companies to headhunt the most qualified and skilled workers everyone in his field but inversely the power goes to the employee to ask for a very high salaries and by fact and upon the market the companies started to act to this demands. Upon a recent research, it was found that the percentage of the salaries on the job satisfaction is not a big percent and that every company should follow different methodologies to keep their workers motivated and engaged with their organization (Robertson, K., 2002).
Responding to this requirements and demands by the qualified employees, the companies should work in two directions one is psychological which is solving the intrinsic issues and the other is for the financial one as well. And after an important study had been conducted via the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), it founds that a great percent of companies and organizations spent a lot of money in order to compensate their workers although the year after they spent less than this percent before.
Balancing the financial and nonfinancial motivators, organizations begins a diversification in their packages to cope with the great financial demands. So motivators becomes not only as great salaries or beneficial packages with medical and other insurance but it becomes diversified to meet all the desires with a creative designs to attracts different qualifiers or maintain and retain their skilled workers (Sanford, B. ,2002).
2.3.1 Need Theories
Main five theories should be clarified which is affecting the worker satisfaction and motivation towards the work .Every theory is targeting one of the major values and varied upon need like the turnover or the employee productivity and also the theories differs upon it’s affect and strength and how is the result is closing to aim of applying this theory.
22.214.171.124 Maslow’s hierarchy
Abraham Maslow’s theory was introduced in the 40th which clarified the main basic needs for any individual cause the desired motivation and this theory can be used as guide to show the procedures should be followed by any organization to offer the packages to their employees in order to motivate them and satisfy their basic needs and consequently it will minimize the undesirable turnover and then it will decrease the cost.
One of the most crucial basic theories of motivation is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as the theory support the organizations to create new design programs and set up to motivate the employees and retain their loyalty and then it will minimize the turnover and only the qualified resources will be hired and that will reflect positively on the production and organization revenues at the end. (Johnson, L. ,2006).These basic needs for individuals can be ordered from the main basics to the more advanced as below hierarchy to be physiological and followed by safety and then social relations after that the self esteem and last not least the self-actualization.
In other words and classifications, the first three basic needs named as deficiency needs because they should be fulfilled when the individuals becomes healthy and safe .The last two are named by the growth needs as they are targeting the personal development and individual and as each of these needs becomes essentially satisfied, the next upward basic need be a dominant.
SADRI, G., and BOWEN, R. (2011), added that each basic need has to be fulfilled largely to able the individual to proceed for the next higher level. The managers can inspire the employee by offering a reward or motivator to satisfy the need which is already operated and at that time once the worker fulfill the basic or essential need ,he got motivated and then seek to go directly to the next level of needs which he desire to satisfy the morale and got more motivated.
And by default and as nature, the motivators may differ from one individual to another and it is totally depends on the personality of every worker or individual itself. That proof why the impact percentage reflected after the motivation is not a liner relation and what can work with an individual cannot work with other.
The following clarify and describe the main Maslow’s needs, and show the different various motivators that organizations can use to motivate their workers.
1. Physiological needs:
This need is described in Maslow’s hierarchy as the most crucial basic need for any individual and it contain the need for food, shelter and breathing air for keeping alive .The most clear motivational factor along the business life in this level is the financial compensation which is include the salaries, profit share, pension funds and retirement packages as the salaries may reach a great percent of what the organizations are spending to motivate their workers (Caudron, S., 1994).
The Salary is the most important thing that anyone is considering while move search for any job and therefore money becomes the critical which the worker is seeking to satisfy his needs physiologically.
So money can grantee the food shelter and cloths needed for this important human basic satisfaction using the salary and financial benefits. Also some other benefits can satisfy this basic need like providing the good and healthy environment, nice desk and other facilities like computers and coffee machine .And to breath a fresh air with suitable workplace could motivate the workers and got the best of them without increasing their salaries or pay for additional financial packages. Some companies are offering a break time and others prepare a recreational area specialized for the launch and breaks and some goes to the funny ideas and offering place for play station and other games. Other corporate found it nice to offer free coupons to be delivered to their employees for free meals and that may satisfy the physiological basic needs for the workers and feel that he is free as at home (Arazy, O., & Gellatly, I. R. ,2012).
Recently and especially the big organization began to use different and innovative ideas and also indirectly support their employees to satisfy their basic physiological need like to offer free car parking or free wash for the cars and other cleaning facilities and in addition some other activities like on-site gym within the working hours or may after that. Others offer a booklet for discounted promotion may be useful for this personal life and will reduce the worker’s expenses by default. These benefits and facilities will surly decrease the financial obligation on the worker and can use the money to pay for thing seem more vital and important for his normal life
Lately, a lot of companies and organization recognized that from the major issues may satisfy and engage the worker toward the company is providing the balance of life as much as can in which this balance is directly considered as a basic need and that to provide penalty of time able the worker to enjoy his life after work and not to waste all his time in the work.
And seeking for this balance, a lot of workers these days are searching for the job and organization will achieve this benefit and a more beneficial job functionally and financially may be rejected from the worker side due to the absence of this balance of life he needs. And to avoid this conflict from the organizations ,they began to find alternative solutions and to offer some benefits related to balancing the work life to attract the employees to accept the job especially the qualified candidates and that require a lot of creative ideas like enable the working from home system or the flexibility time and to choose special day in the week to work and customize the weekdays working hours and says and beside some other benefits like on site gym and cleaning facilities to provide enough time for the worker in work and enjoying his time after the business working hours (Williams, M.L. and Dreher, G.F. ,1992)
Sherman, A. J. (2003) added that, other workers seek to have a planned vacation from the beginning of the year to decide and plan what to do and how to enjoy this vacation along the business year and that will grantee the balance of life the worker is requiring to continue work in the organization with the same performance and clear mind and give the best to the company and consequently will be reflected on the profits to be gain by the organization so it is a win- win agreement and benefits.
Some companies begin in that way to get the promotions and discounted offers to their employees for the vacation plans and in addition to advice about the best places in the suitable time with the less cost and so, the worker will feel how the organizations is carrying about his balance of life.
2. Safety need
The safety, tranquility and security are all synonyms for what is desired for any person. And as Maslow’s definition about safety, it is the need to be safe from physical and nonphysical harms may affect his life. The money in general considering salaries act as physiological needs and consequently it provides the sense of safety. Also to be healthy can be considered one of a sense of safety for any person.
Upon a study conducted by J. MacDonald, billions of dollars spent by American companies on the health benefits in the last years and to secure the desire of safety. Before, organizations were granting the health or medical insurance to their hired employees but recently they are securing the medical insurance to the employee’s families. Also organizations began in providing new types of insurance like life insurance which gives a long term and then the employee will feel secured and that will be reflected to his satisfaction and loyalty to the company. In addition, the new retirements plans provided by companies makes their employees feel a very favorable sense of safety and securing (Caudron, S., 1994).
The retirements plans gives the employees a sense of long term safety and by searching, we can find that the most used system a plan in which the organization match a part of what the employee contribute with. Definitely, all the organizations that are not providing this type of plans are suffering a big problem that is it becomes not an attractive company for the qualified and skilled candidates and cannot even retain their employees .Now organizations can provide the programs and service that grantee the safety and security to their workers
Example of these programs the psychological programs that support the qualified workers to overcome some of the stresses and workloads they are suffering helps in releasing conflicts they may face and that using some tools like a helpline or one-to-one meetings with qualified consultants help the worker to overcome such these negative emotions and feelings.
3. Love/belonging needs
The third level in Maslow’s hierarchy is the need of love or to be part of someone and to be loved and feel the emotional feeling related to the grouping or to be belonging to someone. This basic need will push the employee to join the organization that feeds this emotional status and to sense the relationship based on this company and socially can deal and establish relations he is seeking.
Here the organization can get benefit from this relation in which the worker who is willing to join company carrying about the relationship based, can use this in formulating the teams and harmonize the members to get the best of them and work as one team .And at that time, the employee will feel motivated and can satisfy his basic need about belonging. So team can produce more than every worker can do alone and that is the team synergy. It is a win-win situation between worker and the organization. (Mayfield, J., & Mayfield, M.,2009)
Some other plans can be implemented about satisfying the worker belonging needs like sponsoring sport activities, gathered launch breaks, open clubs, innovative focused groups, events allow the worker to get his family or friends in the work, projects that gather the employees with same interests, gaming and friendly competitions and may extent to support the worker in a personal issue like funding for new car. All these trials from the organization side are to give the hand to their workers to feel the belonging and then give the best to the company as much as they can.
4. Esteem need
One of the main reasons founded recently makes the employees to leave their job is not to be recognized in their organizations .Maslow’s hierarchy mentioned that self esteem is a very important basic need for any worker especially the skilled one they need to feel recognized ,respected and have a good image between colleagues. That will be reflected directly to the worker’s self confidence and positively will be impacted on the business in which the employee will be satisfied and much motivated which allow to get the best of him. To be praised and recognized are basic feelings for motivating the employees and especially if is showed among the people and colleagues (Rutherford, B., Park, J., & Han, S., 2011).
From the grate motivators for any organization can use is the sense of trust and self confidence the worker can feel while working in this company and how they recognize their contribution in raising up their company and help in achieving the organization strategy goals and targets and the appearance of this contribution among the company colleagues which give a great push to these workers to work hardly and continually to save these feelings for a long time in which satisfy the self esteem they need.
Some companies started creative programs to satisfy this need by giving a special reward and cups to the best achievers and valuable gifts to the best performers and also distributing a thank you cards can be gifted in between the workers which gives a great sense of recognition and self esteem and feeling pride in the company. (SADRI, G., & BOWEN, R., 2011).
In other organizations, they began to build up some programs and closed focus groups specified for the most innovative and creative workers help the company in getting new product, promotion or technology and then support in increasing the company profits. This may be useful for some workers but others may satisfy the esteem need by getting promotions and titles in the company .so the organization started to create a special promotion slots for achievers or announce for a promotion for whom will create a new beneficial idea aligned with company strategy. others create a technical paths for works in case there is no availability for promoting the workers in the managerial paths and in some companies there is no availability for any promotion so it compensate their employees by delegating them in some important roles which increase the self esteem and makes them more engaged.
Nohria et al. (2008) said that employee of the month and announcing for the best tool all are some strategies can be used by companies for satisfying the worker’s self esteem. Others provide parking spaces, a closed office, free gym access, attending a high level meeting and the priority for conferences and overseas trainings. Also recognition in the company’s magazine with achievements had been done by the worker is a very good trial to satisfy and fulfill the basic need of self esteem
5. Self-actualization need
After achieving the four previous basic needs, the self actualization stage can be noted strongly. The worker feel that he want to be the best and the most important and critical member in the organization and his stamp is crystal clear in every corner in the organization .If the company can satisfy the four levels of the needs, it can use the self actualization as an inspiring for their workers to get the best of the best from them and support them to reach the highest performance ever and that will be reflected directly to the business and expected profits.
But this level is very hard to be reached or satisfied by all workers and to feel this step is almost for only workers who are seeking the highest performance and pay a lot of efforts and time to get this level.
126.96.36.199 Goal-setting Theory
This theory is talking to the high performance as it depends on setting a specific goal and that goal should guide the worker the tasks have to be done and the efforts should exerted .A certain and predefined goals sure will increase the worker performance especially for the difficult goals than the easy one. The act of specifying the goal may be as motivator in itself and therefore the goal should be noted with its importance and the characteristic of the tasks achieving the goal
This theory stats that there is indivisible connection between the performance of the tasks and the setting of the goal itself and it is clearly found that the much of making the goals more specified .It states that specific, achievable and can be measured, the much the worker will be motivated and satisfied .So, Goals have to be SMART enough to get benefit of the fruits of being use the goal setting theory. For example, if the worker knows that at the end of the year he will evaluated upon clear and smart objectives and goals, this will motivate him to achieve the measurable goals and then can be rewarded (Manzoor, Q. ,2012).
From the main advantages of this theory that it is way in which it can increase the worker motivation to finalize the work assigned efficiently and effectively and also it end up with enhancing the performance through set a clear goal with providing the required motivation and by getting the right and quick feedback helps in getting the weakness points and begin work on it immediately.
But in the same time, companies or organization goals may be conflicted with the management goals and then it will affect dramatically on the worker performance and organization in general. In addition, it may be more complicated in which can be risky for the organization .Also, the worker qualification and skills may limit the goal setting process in which the less competencies can affect the performance while achieving the goals and then the theory will fail.
188.8.131.52 Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement theory always looks to the worker internal status in which the feelings and emotions can draw a main line for the character and this theory is interesting completely on the feedback and responses got from the worker while and after doing a specific action .Thus, it is founded that organizations should design the external environment in a way that affect the workers in appositive and effective way to motivate and stimulate them and then using this theory ,organization can make the required analysis using this as a tool to control and monitor the worker behavior (Robertson, K.,2002).
Organizations can use the reinforcement using different methodologies to control the worker attitude by positive reinforcement that organization gives positive feedback and response when the worker behaves in a positive way. Other by negative reinforcement like rewarding the worker by removing a negative penalty or unfavorable consequences. Some companies use the punishment by erasing some positive penalties in other words, to apply unfavorable penalty to show unwanted attitude (Lepak, D.P. & Snell, S.A., 2002). Finally the Extinction, which is used when reinforcement is not found. It decreases the probability of unwanted attitude by removing reward related to his attitude. Reinforcement theory predicts the quantity and quality of the work with the exerted efforts and lateness by the worker.
184.108.40.206 Equity Theory
Sometimes the workers feel unfairness when they perceived that are not rewarded or less rewarded than they expect to deserve and that may be a strong reason for de-motivation.the equity theory on how to distribute the resources among partners in a fair way. It can be measured after comparing the contribution ratio and each person benefits and here it should be mentioned that receiving the same benefits between partners like organization and employee in the financial packages for example or have the same contribution is very hard (Huseman, R.C., Hatfield, J.D. & Miles, E.W,1987).
Like other motivation theories, the equity theory noted that the variability and changing in the efforts exerted by a worker can affect hardly the impression and perception about their relations with other partners. Normally, the worker is seeking to feel that he is rewarded in a fair way upon his performance and ration of contribution but the employee feel that he is underpaid regarding to the effort exerted, it will affect on the performance and consequently there will be a degradation overall organization performance.
Just the recognition idea, thanking way and rewarding in different ways is expecting to make the worker feel satisfied and more motivated and the may be for feeling the equity according his contribution and what he got from feedback and between the work colleagues and this feelings is supporting to build trust, self confidence to the worker and spreading the fairness between workers especially in same teams which is very healthy for the company and worker simultaneously. In general, almost the workers are comparing between what they are got and what they are doing relative to other workers to decrease the sense of inequity .also the workers try to note not only the rewards they are receiving due to their efforts but trying to relate to what the others receiving (Spector 2008).
220.127.116.11 Expectancy theory
Expectancy theory is stated the strength of performing in a special manner is directly depends on the strength of expected performance followed by clear output of the worker. This theory stated worker’s motivation is the output of the expected reward the worker can gain, efforts that may lead to the reward and then the belief that such efforts exerted should be rewarded. In short, it is the expected and not the actual satisfaction that the worker perceives after the doing the job. Expectancy is the belief that efforts will result the best performance and it is affected by some factors such as control of suitable skills to perform the job, qualified resource availability, find out the important information and get the required support to achieve the goal (Cappelli, P., 2000)
The expectancy theory focuses on some particular relationships like effort performance relationship in which the worker is almost perceived that certain efforts exerted will lead to specific reward. And other is Performance reward relationship which is the level the worker trust in performing with certain level leads to realization of a favorable output, and finally the reward’s personal relationship as it is the degree in which the company benefits and rewards can motivate the worker and attractiveness of possible rewards for the worker.
But the expectancy theory seems to be naive because little number of workers are perceiving the high level relation between rewards and performance and also to apply this theory, it will be faced by several limitations as it is not correlated directly with worker’s performance in some companies and organizations and just correlated to others like the grade, accountabilities, backgrounds and responsibilities.
2.4 Impact of Motivation Techniques
The Theory of Maslow’s motivation hierarchy ban be used by both organizations and managers to be as a framework to enhance the corporate beneficial deals, promotions and benefits that is very important to worker and thus it will help in increasing the satisfaction, motivation ,production and then the overall profits to the organization. The main idea of Maslow’s hierarchy is that worker satisfaction and motivation needs more than just a fit able salary as not all he worker are laying in the same trinity in Maslow’s hierarchy, so have to be motivated in different ways separately .Motivation needs a lot of work from managers as to define the main needs clearly which is act as a function to satisfy the worker (Caudron, S. 1994).
So, highest priority for almost every worker who starts new job is the salary. Once that need is fulfilled to that extent, the worker requires a next step which is the safety. Then the third level of basic a need which is focusing on enhancing the feel of belonging. After that, workers need to sense the recognition to satisfy the esteem need. Once all these basic needs are full filled, organizations have to add motivators which lead to satisfaction of the higher basic need on Maslow’s hierarchy which is the self-actualization.
This hierarchy of basic needs helps organizations to confirm that they can provide the benefits will satisfy the basic needs at all five trinity of the hierarchy. Defining of where the worker allocated in this hierarchy can be done through self performance review with workers individually and by using worker ideas about other groups of workers.
Manzoor, Q. (2012) added that while providing the motivators required ,organization can be able to reuse their finds efficiently and effectively and in the same time to retain exists worker and attract other qualified candidates .And by default the workforce will be motivated and then inspire the remain parameters to be in the same feeling. In the end, this may increase the overall organization profits and build the workforce in which consists of the workers searching for other creative ways to make all around is better.