The History Of Measuring Job Satisfaction Business Essay
Job satisfaction as a concept describes how satisfied a person is with his or her present job. Job satisfaction is not similar to inspiration, although it is clearly connected. This Job plan aims to improve job satisfaction and performance methods contain job rotation, job improvement and work enrichment. Other factors for satisfaction include the administration style and culture, worker participation, empowerment and sovereign work groups.
Job satisfaction is a most important characteristic which is normally measured by organisations. Very common way of measurement is the utilization of rating scales where staff reports their reactions to their jobs. The questions relate to scale of pay, work obligations, diversity in everyday jobs, promotional opportunities the occupation itself and co-workers.
Job satisfaction is the mental sentiments which favorableness a person has about his job .DA Brinn has defined job satisfaction in terms of enjoyment and contentment when he says that "job satisfaction is the quantity of pleasure or contentment connected with job if you like your job passion. You will experience high job satisfaction .It dislikes your job concentration, you will feel job disappointment."
Job satisfaction (Meaning and concept)
Job satisfaction is a general pleasurable or positive emotional state of an individual which can be said to result from a self appraisal of various dimensions of his or her job. As a matter of fact, by working on a job, most people qualify many of their needs. So in this regard to want is a potent source of necessitate, gratification of all types such as physical, security, social and ego need etc.,
Job satisfaction can be described as a process in which the employees feel themselves contended or satisfied with their work which they do informally organized sectors to accomplish the purpose of the organisation. This is the end feeling of an individual after performing a job. The feeling would be positive or negative depending on whether the need is satisfied or not. If a person’s job fulfills his/her basic needs and is consistent with his or her expectation and morals, the job will be satisfying.
Job satisfaction also relates to working conditions like good infrastructure and working conditions, proper working hours, lighting, ventilation, drinking water and urinal facilities, healthy relationship with seniors, subordinates and peer group and salary packages. All these facilities motivate the employees to do better work for his association. As if the employee is satisfied it develops a right type of attitude, high morale and enthusiasm for work
Job satisfaction is a generalized attitude resulting from many specific attitudes in three areas
Specific job factor
Job satisfaction is a favorableness or unfavorableness with which employees view their work. It results when there is congruence between job requirement and wants and expectation of the employees.
Job satisfaction is an emotional affective personal response as a result of his estimation of degree to which some fact of job reality is congruent or in congruent with his values according to (EJIOGU, 1985)
According to Kocher is the whole matrix of job factor that makes a person like his work situation and willing to head for it without distaste at the beginning of his work day.
This meant the job satisfaction include two aspects
Living and enjoying the job
Going to ones job erect with smile
Factors contributing job satisfaction
The best discussion on factors relating to job satisfaction has been provided by Thomas Wiliared Harrell (1958) in his look industrial, psychology. According to Harrell it’s not one factor alone which influences job satisfaction. He believes that job satisfaction depends upon three major categories of factors of job satisfaction.
Personal factors: sex, age, education etc.
Factors inherit in job: type of work ,skill required
Fact enrolled by management :security, pay , co-workers
The actual formal study of job satisfaction did not materialize until the 1930, but the study of workers attitude began much earlier. In 1912, Mayo started a series of studies known as the Hawthorne studies. Focus of these studies was employee production and efficiency; it laid an important foundation for future studies.
The Hawthorne studies were the first research project to attempt to quantify employee attitudes and correlate attitude with overall work efficiency. In the mid-1930, just two years after the Hawthorne studies were completed; Hoppock (1935) published the first intensive study about job satisfaction. This watershed study addressed job satisfaction from a much more complex. Hoppock saw job satisfaction as being impacted by the following independent variables: a) fatigue b) monotony c) working conditions d) supervision, and e) achievement.
The last variable, -achievement is the most important of these new factors because of its professional relevance to research in modern day job satisfaction research achievement impact a person’s drive to succeed. Achievement as a dependent variable is somewhat how difficult to completely codify, but Hoppock attempted to construct question that could measure a person’s motivation to achieve prescribed goals.
Following the Hawthorne studies of the late 1920s to the Hoppock (1935) intensive study of job satisfaction other 20th century researchers discovered the complexity of human nature. Work production should be tied to the complexity of human nature. Work production should be tied to the complex inter-correlation of many different variable and not merely physical factors such as work pauses.
The Hawthorne Studies, in large part, shaped the trend for the "human relations "movement in industrial sociology that would spawn the work of Likert (1961), Whyte (1995), and Homans (1950) to early 1960 because research began to move towards exploring other aspects of motivation rather than human element. The classic example of this shift was seen in Herzberg, Mausner and Snyder man’s (1959).
Monograph that refocused the attention of research on the job itself. During this period Herzberg developed his Motivation Hygiene Theory. Herzberg et al. (1959) proposed this two factor theory while studying a sample of 200 engineers and accountants asked to describe a time in which they felt especially dissatisfied with their jobs. The answer obtained through his qualitative study seemed to group together in a way that established pattern .According to the study recognition and responsibilities were frequently mentioned as satisfiers. The researchers labeled this variable as "motivators". Incidents classified as involving supervisors, interpersonal relation, working conditions, company polices and salary was frequently mentioned as dissatisfies.
Herzberg Etal. (1995) labeled this group "Hygiene’s". The Herzberg Theory hinges upon the principal that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction result from very different cause, satisfaction depends on "motivators" and dissatisfaction depends on "Hygiene "factors.
The Hoppock and Herzberg theories served as a conceptual frame work for many future job satisfaction surveys. These studies, coupled with prior research, assisted Locke (1976) in distinguishing the following key factors as most important when studying job satisfaction: a) work b) pay c) promotion d) verbal recognition, and e) working conditions.
The actual formal study of job satisfaction did not materialized until 1930, sbut the study if worker’s attitude began much earlier in 1912.mayo started series of study known as Hawthorne studies. Although the focus of their studies was employer production and efficiency it laid an important foundation for future studies.
The Hawthorne studies were the first research project to attempt to quantify employer attitude and correlate attitudes with overall work efficiency in the mid -1930.just two years after the Hawthorne studies were completed, Hoppock (1935) published the first intensive study about job satisfaction .this watershed study from a much more complex approach. Hoppock say job satisfaction as being impacted by the following independent variables.
3. Working conditions
The last variable ,achievement is the most important of these new factors because of its professional relevance to research in modern day job satisfaction research achievement impacts a person ‘s drive to succeed. Achievement as a dependent variable is somewhat difficult to completely codify but Hoppock attempted to construct question that could measure a person’s motivation to achieve prescribed goal.
The 3 variable found in the multivariate analysis explained roughly the same percentage of variance for employees in the private and public sector employer. The most important suggestion may be that no matter your job is, there are some care variables that have significant impact on satisfaction.
Resource:Job Satisfaction of International Educators- By DeWayne P. Frazier-google books
Measuring job satisfaction
Most studies of job satisfaction have been concerned with operational sing it rather than defining it. According to Locke (1969) such as approach describe that a certain relationship works but nothing as to buy it works. This seems to be case with job satisfaction. Researchers have been found to be more interested in choosing the unit of measurement from the several available but little ways to definition of a job satisfaction as a precursor for the choice of the unit of the measurement.
However, despite these numerous attempted in the past, various others will be made in future to measure job satisfaction. Perhaps, the earliest of the known scale of measuring work fulfillment is that by Hoppock (1935). He developed essentially four items, each one with seven alternative response. If a person chooses the’ least satisfied’ of the seven alternatives, he gets a score of 100, and 700 if he chooses ‘more satisfied’ alternatives for each thing. Other alternatives stand for a 100 point addition to previous alternative.100, if a person chooses first alternative for all four items his total score is 400. Similarly, if he chooses second alternative he gets a score of 800 and so on. Maximum total is 2800 provided all four 7th alternatives are chosen. But Hoppack takes average of four items ( range 100-700) for rising the satisfaction guide, although in its original structure job satisfaction index by Hoppack is generally not used now but its variation can be spotted in the literature.
Hoppock index is perhaps the only direct assess of job satisfaction. Others have index job contentment in terms of responses to a variety of questions which deals with factors that are straight or indirectly connected to jobs. These responses usually measured on diversity of scales ranging from simple Yes or no to 7 points or 5 points agree - disagree type of scale.
Resource: human resource management –Saiyadain-google books
There is no doubt in saying that Ludhiana is the leading hosiery house of north India. Ludhiana did not become the leading hosiery house of north India in a day; it has taken decades. From the time of the Mughals or say before them, the people of this region engaged in weaving clothes. Today every type of agents, ladies and kids garments is manufactured in Ludhiana. The garments are found in up-to-date in fashion and shades.
Business inquiries over Rs. 600 Millions were generated using Garment-tech international Expo-2003 which is a sign for the changing national situation in view of the forthcoming dismantling of the proportion regime by the year 2004. The exporters & garment production’s have realized that the only route for continued existence in the open marketplace is the technology up gradation or an mixture of the latest machinery. Ludhiana was the focus town. To face the worldwide threat, the domestic garment trade should show a united face and use this transition period for the up grad. Thus, we can call Ludhiana as the heart of hosiery in the north Indian region.
Launched in 1973, as a very small scale knitwear manufacturing company, the Osters Group of companies established Osters in the marketplace. Just because of sincerity, honesty, hard work as well as with positive point of view soon Oster became a prestigious brand.
Growing in fame each year, the group entered the worldwide Market by 1986 and established Osters in CIS Countries. Osters proved a successful brand once again. Here is the snapshot of Osters Group which started as new-fangled and today is as a successful company., Resources :http://www.indiamart.com/osterknit/
Osters incorporated in 1973.
In 1980, the main household presence recorded.
In 1986, it started business with other CIS Countries.
In 1993, it was awarded as the best exporter of the year.
In 1997, it installed all fully automatic knitted machines.
In 2001, export leaning unit is fully introduced.
In 2004, it’s awarded by IKEA, Sweden as provided of the year.
In 2004, a new Titles branch introduced.
In 2004, Knitwear club Ludhiana appointed as Vice President.
In 2005, latest printing and dying unit established.
In 2006, it started independently weaving and spinning unit.
In 2007, Mink blanket and quilting unit introduced.
In 2008, abroad oriented unit introduced.
In 2010, a very large home furnishing investment done.
In 2011, latest project like spinning plant done.
In 2011, latest planned weaving plant done.
What do they produce?
Sweaters for men and women. Domestic home furnishing includes Bedcovers, Blankets, Duvet Covers and Quilts. Export home furnishing consists of Throws, Bedcovers, Blankets, Cushions, Duvet Cover, Fabric Material and Men’ Trousers and shirts.
What is their infrastructure?
To produce a successful brand, they have remarkably advanced machines of worldwide famous Organisations like Universal, Stoll and Aries. In addition the world’s most sophisticated machines, they have all this in-house production ability of computerized Flat Bed, Knitting Machines, and Circular Knitting Machines, Manual, Quilting and Automatic Printing, Embroidery, Shearing, Raising, Stunter, Azer, Linking and Industrial Dry Cleaning Machine alongside so many others. These production services are available in five factories.
Their royal market & customers
They are pleased to inform us that among our high profile customers one of Target Corporation and Spring of U.S.A., Mother Care and Tesco of United Kingdom, Carrefour of France, Metro of Europe, CIS Countries, Russia, Ukraine, Khyrghistan, Turkmenistan, UAE and of course their very own Indian Market.
This group’s main strategic approach is brand centric and strategically they defined to achieve the target to reach divergent markets in India and all around the world like Sri Lanka, Nepal, Canada, and U.S.A. This all happens with the help of advertising and promotional campaign. Their product catalogue got success in positioning their brand like a top echelons for value of money and a quality.
Their market networks are too strong and over 70 exclusive showrooms and over 2500 multibrand outlets are succeeding around the major cities of the India.
Their own sale monitors make it easy for networks to increase sales and build positive relationship and make it easy to understand market segments and other changing demands.
This national brand has international standards. Their multilevel marketing and all rounded approach incorporates a wide assortment customer interaction programs and image management.
This company believes that the customers must get the quality of the product. Quality should not be less than the pay but even more than they spent for the item.
Oster group of companies have strong policies to make good quality products. Quality, testing and precise regulatory performance ensures that they can send their product at right place in right time. They proper care about labeling, color fasting, comfort and functionality.
Osters Knit Pvt. Ltd. Continues to make products that are value for money and have created loyal customers who will settle for nothing else.
At Osters they have maintained very high quality standards through in house tab and metal free zone. Dedicated R&D block serves as the inventive engine of the company for which we even focus on customer's feedback. Their dedicated staff is well equipped to look after the flawless production process and on time delivery.
At Oster, they believe in Teamwork, and as Managing Director, They have been opportune and grateful worked with an extraordinarily talented, proficient, tremendously trained, hard working and innovative team that is determined to remain moving on the pathway towards providing their stakeholders with superior value & a better product than any of their competitor in the marketplace. Training, encouraging and developing human assets has been at the front position of Oster Limited progression. It is because of this investment that they have full-grown from power to power and being able to win the hidden trust of all their customers; because for them every piece and every customer are extremely important.
In just 40 years, they have a very strong market presence and effect in all 28 states of India & twenty five countries in 4 different continents world widely. As they carry on this trailblazing expedition, every member of the Osters Team re affirms the idea that serves as the organization’s foundation- top of the line excellence and affordability produce in full fulfillment manufacturing amenities backed by expert and efficient customer service, because Osters Ltd. in 'the way of smart source of revenue’.
Modern washing machine helps to wash up the toxic chemicals with water.
Rain water gets harvested to get natural resource.
They encourage green belt area and planted 3000 trees in 5 acre of land for healthy future of coming generations.
Recycling and water treatment.
Use environment friendly chemicals, installation of modern E.T.P
Team is dedicated to abide all standards and norms of the state.
Well installed fire safety system, manual care points, fire alarms, sensor etc.
To prevent disaster fire brigade is placed in unit.
Provide safety training to the workers.
Provide personnel protective equipments.
24*7 ambulance services are provided to the unit.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
CHAIRMAN MANAGING DIRECTOR
CORPORATE GENERAL MANAGER
Design and Structure of the research
Chapter one is basically the introduction of the research study. In this chapter I have included background and the purpose of the study.
The second chapter is of literature review in which I have included definitions and findings from different authors along with the relevant data from various articles, journals and books to support the relevancy of the all discussion.
Chapter three is about design and methodology of the research.
Chapter four is about data collection methods and the analysis of this data. In this chapter I have described the significance of primary, secondary and exploratory data research techniques.
Chapter five consists in-depth analysis of research findings based on the discussed issues.
Chapter six includes the conclusion of the research, recommendations for the situation along with valid references and citation.
Objectives of the study
To find out staff job satisfaction level in Oster knit Ltd.
To study the staff perception towards the Oster company.
To find out the attitude of the employees towards their job.
To recognize the factors that motivates the employees.
To give some suggestion for the growth and outlook of the company.
Scope of the study
Job satisfaction is a important output that workers work for the organisation.
It comprises of extrinsic and natural factors and helps maintainable and agreeable work forces.
It is a very thrilling and important area for conducting research.
The study made on the topic of job satisfaction will expose the factor of feeling of the workforce.
This statement is useful to the administration of the production to know the agreement level of workforce and they can take measures to increase competence.
This report may be helpful for management students for reading & may be helpful in preparing their report on the work satisfaction "In business concerns, community organisation etc.
Problem of the study
The particular topic was "a study of job satisfaction"
It is said that satisfied workforce are a productive employee, any kind of criticism relating to organisation or person to a greater extent pressure on the work.
So every company is given a higher priority to keep their workers with satisfaction by providing numerous facilities which improves satisfaction and which reduces happiness.
Job satisfaction is measured as a key matter by the tycoon where pains are taken and programs are begun.
If the staff is not pleased with the occupation there are chances for low turnover, absenteeism, low productivity, commit mistakes, diverting power for separate type of conflict keeping this obsession in view all organisations are trying to identify the area where satisfaction to be enhanced to get out the above danger.
In this association an examination was taken place on behalf of Oster to identify the level of happiness in terms of strongly agrees to strongly disagree on an assortment of job related factors.
Review of Literature
Review of the related literature
It has been estimated than since the 1930’s; more than 5,000 studies of the job satisfaction have been published by behavioral research (Cranny, Smith& Stone, 1992). Educational researchers have also displayed a substantial amount of interact in the study of job satisfaction (Timpson, Mc Namara, &Hoyle, 1997). The finding of the thousands of studies has varied, but among researchers, there appears to be general agreement on the definition of job satisfaction. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as the individual‘s overall feeling about the job expressed in liking or disliking.
Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) define it as "the feelings the workers has about his job." Specter (1997) has defined job satisfaction as the extent to which people like their job. Locke noted that one must take into account the congruence of these values with one’s needs.
Maslow (1954) considered satisfaction in terms of meeting human needs. Vroom (1964) pointed that satisfaction arises from the product of a valence of work outcomes and the perceived instrumentally of job in producing these outcomes. In Dawis, Lofquist & Weiss (1968), satisfaction was the result of the worker’s appraisal of the extent to which the work environment fulfils the individual’s needs.
.Dawis (1984) opined that definitions such as the above are essentially similar and complimentary, although they may differ in their emphasis.
Theories and Some related studies of job satisfaction
Towney et al.(1999) theorized that from the early 1900s onwards there were three movements that shaped personnel practice in both industry and education. These advances lead to theories of job satisfaction .The first of these developments was the scientific management movement. Frederick Taylor (1911) , known as the progenitor of scientific management, emphasized concept such as each major task should be divided into series of small tasks, and then each of small tasks should be studied so that it may be accomplished in the most cost efficient manner. Further, the approach required an incentive system to reward high production and "punish" poor efficiency or production .Taylor’s ideas generally are regarded as too harsh for today’s work environment. The concept, however, remain as a foundation for many personnel system in industry and education.
The second development was known as the human relations movement. Elton Mayo (1993) studied matters such as employee motivation, work incentives, and working conditions. He also conducted the Hawthorne studies that effect of various amount of lighting on the employees. The study however, discovered that the amount of the illumination was of marginal importance, and that paying attention to the workers was the factor that yielded higher production, regardless of the amount of light. This finding is also known as the "Hawthorne effect."
Hoy and Miskel (1991) summarized other findings of the Hawthorne studies by noting that employees sometimes judge their production level by the social norms of the organization, rather than by the dictates of management .Also salary is not the only incentive significant to employees. Additionally, the employee’s values, beliefs, and emotions influence behavior.
The third development, the behavioral science, drew on both of the above approaches, and subsequently super ceded them. Some of the major theorists in this area included Hoppock (1935), Herzberg (1959), McGregor (1960), Likert (1961), Maslow (1954), and Argyris (1957).
It is noted that a fourth, emerging development has been identified by other contemporary authors such as Tyrell and Stine (1997).They have observed that organizations are akin to systems, and principles from the behavioral sciences are relevant to improving corporate culture and developing leadership approaches based on the understanding of human nature. In this area, the idea of Derning (1986),Peters and Austin (1985),and Senge et al.(1985) all emphasize cooperative and team approaches to problem solving .Some authors ,such as Kettl (2000), have opined that globalization trends will dramatically transform government organizations, operations and personnel interactions in the 21ST Century. The leadership concept of Senge (1999) and others are essential to meeting emerging human relations challenges in organizations at all levels and service area as collaboration and coordination skill requirements become more predominant.
With the above foundation elements in place concerning definition and developmental matters, the cause of the job satisfaction can be reviewed by observing some of the leading behavioral science concept. It the causation area. There is much less agreement. Various theories have been developed, presented and ultimately .
Hoppock (1935) and Maslow (1954) are two eminent and conventional theorists that suggest. Intrinsic factors include salary, working conditions, supervision and administrative policies.
Hoppock (1935) conducted some of the earliest studies about job satisfaction .In his study, he concluded that if the presence of a certain variable led to satisfaction, then its absence led to dissatisfaction. Thus, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction shared the same continuum. Midway between satisfaction and dissatisfaction was a feeling of neutrality in which the individual was neither satisfied nor dissatisfied.
Maslow’s work, which began in the mid-thirties, centered on what people need in order to grow or develop. the basic premise of his theory had two parts 1).needs are arranged in hierarchy based on their dominance, and 2).the less dominant needs will not be desired or even sought until the more dominant needs are met (Locke,1976).In other words ,once a need is generally satisfied, others surface in a predictable manner (Kreitner.1983).
Maslow’s hierarchy consists of five levels. At the lowest level (the most dominant of the five) are the physiological needs, those which the body needs to stay alive or survive. These include air, food, water and sleep. Maslow (1954) noted that because these are the most basic of all needs, they must be met before any of others will emerge.HR reasoned that if a person lacks everything in life, food is what that person will certainly seek. These base needs are what enable us to survive, so if they are unmet, nothing else matters (Kreitner 1983).
Once psychological needs are essentially met, then second level needs, which Maslow named safety needs, emerge. Safety from physical harm, the elements, enemies, the unexpected, and economic hardship all are categorized here. As most adults in our culture have these needs fulfilled, Maslow pointed to neurotic individuals as exam plus of those who lack them. These neurotic adults often fear the unknown, and they act as though catastrophe is always near (Maslow 1954).
With survival and safety needs fulfilled the needs for love, affection and a sense of belonging arise. At this level people strongly desire to be part of a group and will labour to attain and retain status. Maslow (1954) emphasized that this need for love is not synonymous with the need for sex, which is physiological need. The need is not fulfilled unless love is given as well as received.
The fourth level need is desire for esteem. Maslow subdivided esteem needs into two categories. The first has to do with achievement, mastery and competence. Those with self esteem have a sense of worth, self confidence and usefulness. Those without it feel weak, helpless and inferior. Because Maslow (1954) believed that such esteem necessarily needed to be based on real competence rather than the perception of others he regarded deserved respect rather than celebrity as the "most stable and therefore most healthy self esteem."
At the apex of Maslow’s hierarchy is the need for the self actualization. Maslow argued that if even all the other needs were met, an individual might not be content unless the person is doing that which he or she was meant to do.
Lawler (1973) pointed out that in later revision of this theory, Maslow proposed that the notion of a need decreasing when it was sufficiently satisfied holds true until the self actualization level is reached. At that level, the opposite occurs. In other words, increase satisfaction leads to increase motivation, increase desire for the need to be more fully met. Indeed Porter’s1964 study (cited in Lawler,1973) concluded that manager rated self-actualization as their highest need, and evidence exist of workers changing jobs only to further develop themselves (Lawler,1973).This supports Maslow’s revised thesis.
Despite its wide acceptance and continued use, Maslow’s theory has many critics. Schneider and Alderfer (1973) were critical of the theory because the lack of empirical proof to support the existence of a hierarchy or even or some of the needs themselves. Hall and Nougaim’s study (cited in Kreitner .1983 and Locke.1976) which attempted to test the theory found little support for it. Argyris (1964) opined that job satisfaction increased as the job’s status level increased. He stated that; "we can infer that the higher up the organisation ladder and /or the greater the professionalism, the higher probability that people will report intrinsic work satisfaction." Canters and Bugental’s (1996) study revealed that workers in higher level jobs appeared to have a large interest in fulfilling higher order needs. Chambers (1999) in a study of 459 women in private sector Company found that women at executive’s level had greater overall job satisfaction than those at (lower) managerial level.
Lawler (1973) concluded that beyond the first two levels in the hierarchy, "which higher-order needs come into play after the lower ones are satisfied and in what order they will come into play cannot be predicted. If anything, it seems that most people are simultaneously motivated by several of the same –level needs." Furthermore, he pointed to his own 1971 study to illustrate that certain outcomes, such as money, can satisfy psychological needs as well as safety and esteem needs. However, Locke (1976) was even more critical of Maslow’s work for these reasons.
Maslow did not prove that the needs exist and confusingly combines needs as diverse as safety from physical harm and freedom from economic hardship in the same category.
Maslow’s definition of self –actualization was weak at best because a person cannot become more and more than the person already is and because to become everything a person is capable of becoming is impossible, since people can become any number of things.
Maslow confused needs and values. Needs are, by definition, universal, while what people value varies from person to person and culture to culture.
Maslow confused action and desire by sometimes saying met needs lead one to act while at others times staying they lead only to a desire to act.
Maslow (1954) claimed that "a satisfied need is not a motivator. But needs are rarely permanently fulfilled, so they must be satisfied again and again."
Despite this criticism, Maslow’s theory was, and is, one of the most significant influences on motivation research in organization .The other is Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation.
In 1957 Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson and Campbell published a review of existing literature on job satisfaction. The primary authors characterized the existing literature as "disappointing to fruit full theorizing" (Herzberg et at ,1959).Their book entitled the motivation to work was intended to answer this lack. They utilized Flanagan’s (1954) .Critical incidents method to determine a respondent’s psychological state during on-the job event.
The respondent were 200 accountant and engineers in a study done by the authors .Herzberg and his association found that certain events were frequently associated with satisfaction while others event were more frequently associated into two categories which they called "hygiene factors were described as follows:
When feelings of unhappiness were reported, they were not associated with the job itself but with conditions that surrounds the doing of the job...when there are deleterious factors in the context of the job, they serve to remove the impediments to positive job attitudes. When hygiene factors deteriorate to a level below that which the employee considers acceptable, then job dissatisfaction ensues. (Herzberg et al., 1959.p.113)
Herzberg labelled extrinsic factors as hygiene factors because the factors are used for preventing job dissatisfaction, an analogy to the concept of preventive medicine (Iiacqua, et al., 1995)
Motivation factors as seen as those which satisfy the person’s need for self actualization .Cummings and ElSalmi (1968) characterized these as "feelings that the individual has regarding the content of his job. They reflect the individual’s active search for psychological growth." In stark contrast to the Hoppock continuum related to the presence or absence of motivators. Depending on the motivators, a person could move from neutrally satisfied (no particular feeling one way or the other—"no job satisfaction") at the extreme left of the continuum to total"job satisfaction" at the extreme right. The second continuum used hygiene items to describe in a parallel manner the concept of dissatisfaction, moving from neutrally dissatisfaction on the extreme left (i, e, "no job dissatisfaction") to total "job dissatisfaction" on the far right. Newstrom & Davis (1977) developed a similar depiction of Herzberg’s theory.
By using this two factor description, Herzberg was able to secure much richer description of worker attitudes. His model offered the ability to quantify and explain worker dissonance related to the changes possible when an investigator charted either presence or absence to answer the question, "why I both am intensely satisfies and painfully dissatisfied at the same time"?
The six motivators or satisfiers identifies by Herzberg et al (1959) and Herzberg (1966) correspond to Maslow’s higher order needs of esteem and self-actualization and are composed move the following:
1. Achievement include successful completion of the job, solution or problem, vindication and seeing the result of one’s work.
2. Recognition is any act by supervisor, management personnel, client, peer, colleague or the general public that is perceived by the worker as a source of feeling of recognition. It can include both praise and blame and therefore encompass both positive and negative recognition.
3. Work itself refers to the actual doing of the job or the task of the job as a source of good or bad feelings. The work can be routine or varied, creative or stultifying, overly easy or overly difficult. Each of these conditions can contribute to or detract from satisfaction.
4. Responsibility factors include personal authority for one’s own work or the work of others. Issues related to "insufficient authority to carry out one’s assignment" are classified under policy issues rather the responsibilities.
5. Advancement refers to actual changes in the status or position of an individual in an organisation. It also includes the probability of or hope of advancement.
6. Possibility of growth includes both the chances of further developing one’s skills and abilities and the chance of moving upward. The authors also include lack of growth opportunities in the theory (Herzbers, 1966)
Hygiene factors corresponded to Maslow’s lower order needs and were described by Herzberg and his associates as those factors external to the job itself. The definitions of the eight hygiene items or dissatisfaction are as follows:
Supervision deals with issues of competence, fairness, willingness to delegate responsibility, willingness to teach, tendency towards nagging and efficiency as demonstrate by the individual superiors.
Company policy and administration describes event in which some of the overall aspects of the company is a factor. Examples included malevolent policies and situation where it is unclear to whom one reports.
Working conditions can include physical conditions of the work, the amount of work or the facilities available for doing the work. Specific examples include ventilation, lighting, tools, and space and so on.
Interpersonal relation plays a role in several other categories such as recognition. However this category deals specifically with interaction between the individuals and superiors .peers and subordinates. These relations can include either working relationships or purely social relationships on the job.
Status refers to some signs of appurtenance of status affecting a person’s feeling about the job. Company cars, executive’s washroom, and personal secretaries are examples of status.
Job security includes objectives sign of the presence or absence of job security. It includes stability of the organisation and tenure, among others. The researchers avoided subjective feeling of the respondent.
Personal life factors do not include situations where an individual’s personal life affects the work; the study does consider the individual’s personal life. A company‘s demand for relocation would affect this category (Herzberg, 1996)
It is noted that Davis (1967) also has posited that the factors in Herzberg’s model compared to Maslow‘s need priority model to establish some commonality in the description of the elements in each paradigm. Specifically, Herzberg’s salary and personal life factors equate with Maslow’s physiological needs , with the working conditions factor overlapping into the safety and security needs. Herzberg’s job security actors equates with Maslow’s safety and security needs, with the technical supervision and the company policy and administrative factors overlapping into Maslow’s belongings and social activity needs classification.
Herzberg’s interpersonal relationship with supervision. Peer, and subordinates factors are also equated with belonging and social activity needs. Herzberg’s advancement, recognition and status factors are equated with esteem and status needs, while the work itself, achievement. Possibility of growth, and responsibility factors are equated to Maslow’s self – realization and fulfillment needs.
Herzberg’s theory has been widely endorsed. However, criticism of the theory may be found. Hinrichs and Mischking (1967) refuted the two factor theory in favor of Hoppock (1935) single-continuum theory. Rosen (1963)opined that the model should have been modified for a white-colour Vs blue collar workers .Friedlander (1966) believe that Herzberg’s use of self reported data may be quite different from data obtained objectively. To somewhat counter disapprovals, Brockman (1971) commented that the criticism were made with complete disregard of the arguments and explanations Herzberg presented. However, Holloway (1991) continued the condemnation by asserting that Herzberg, in his 1968 Harvard Business review article – a reprint best seller – was "brash and populist" and may have been more commercially than academically motivated.
This section defines the research methodology, which has been adopted for the intention of studying. It shows the type of samples used, the design used, all sample sizes and the process used for handling special problems during the course of study. It includes the full description of the research design, research instruments, data collection and sampling. Research refers to:
Defining and redefining problem
Formulating a hypothesis or suggested solutions
Gathering , organizing and evaluating information
Creating deductions and reaching conclusions
At last careful testing of the conclusion to conclude whether they fit the formulate premise.
The main reason of the investigation is to discover answers to the questions which are hidden."Job satisfaction" is an important type of qualitative research.
Research design. We should take care to ensure that results are valid and reliable. We should always be careful about the results and ethical issues implied by our research design.
This design can be considered as the development of research. It is the kind of "glue" that holds all of the basics in a research project jointly. We often explain a design by a concise notation that enables us to summarize a difficult design structure professionally.
To keep in mind the objectives of the study, survey was conducted according to data collected. Data may be obtained either from the primary source or the secondary resource by seeing the objectives to be achieved. Primary data is the original data which can be collected latest or first time. The secondary data are those kinds of data which have previously been composed by someone else and which have earlier been passed through statistical process.
In my research both kinds of data like primary and secondary was collected.
Data collected through original sources like interviews, surveys etc.
Apart from main information collected, the data collected trough text books, the records of Oster. Journals from the library, academic reports and internet are used for study.
There are total 415 employees who are working in the organisation.
Out of total strength the sample taken among workers. 40 workers took part in this survey.
The research was conducted at Osters.
This learning was made by the investigation in accordance to the ease of the employees. So the type of the sample is convenience sampling.
A planned closed-end questionnaire is used and type of question is dichotomous & Likert scale.
The study was conducted by using contact instrument like questionnaire; discussion and observation. Data analysis techniques
The data are analyzed through simple analysis techniques. The data tool is known as percentage method.
This Percentage method is used in making comparisons between ………………….both or sense of data. This way is used to describe the connection.
Limitations of the study
• The study is conducted only in Osters.
• Due to the restraint of the time the study could not be made supplementary detailed.
Some respondents were not exposed their accurate responses due to personal privacy.
• Some of the answers of the participants may be biased.
• Participants had marked the responses in questionnaires which may be publicly incorrect irrespective of their real feelings.
Data Analysis and interpretations
Data Analysis & interpretation
Worker’s job satisfaction at their work.
Positive responses %
Mostly respondents are satisfied with their present employment in the company. Few members are not satisfied. So it’s all clearly shown that 90 percent of employees of the Oster Ltd are highly contented with their present jobs.
2. Factors that control employees "motivation".
Good working conditions
% ageof respondents
Interpretation: Greater number of staff members is given preferences to pay. So it seems that the Osters staff is highly inspired by good pay and good working conditions in the organisation.
3. Employee’s response to the salary being offered at Osters.
Positive responses %
Concept: It is an effort which is made to know workers job satisfaction towards salary offerings.
Maximum number of staff members is pleased with salary paying by Oster Company. This is clearly shown from above information that Oster is giving proper pay to their employees.
4. Worker’s other sources of income.
Positive responses %
Just try to find staff’s other sources of income.
From the above information it is shown that big part of the staff (85%) are based on the salary paid by the Oster and the rest 15% have other sources of income.
Maximum number of respondents in Osters is salary dependent.
6. The way employees came to the present position.
Concept: just find out how the employees came into the present position.
Analysis: This is shown from table that 45% of the employees appointed through promotion, 52.5% of the respondents appointed through direct appointment, and 2.5%of the employees came through transfer.
Maximum number of employees was placed through direct appointment. So this is shown that the maximum number of employees of Oster got present position through direct appointment.
6. Staff satisfaction towards employment conditions prevailing in the organisation.
Positive responses %
Analysis: From the above given information, it is clear that worker’s point of view for the employment working conditions prevailing in the organisation is that 95% of the respondents are fully satisfied with these conditions and only 5% of the total employees are not satisfied with their present job.
Maximum number of respondents is fully satisfied with their service conditions. This suggests Osters Company has very good infrastructure & this encourage employees to work hardly.
7. Participant’s satisfactory response to Osters company’s promotion and transfer policies.
Positive responses %
Try to investigate the promotion and transfer policies prevailing in the Osters from the participants. Highly satisfied respondents are 92.5% and the rest 7.5% of respondents are not satisfied.
So it shows that large no. of participant’s are fully satisfied with their promotion & transfer policies.
8. Respondents’ reaction towards physical working circumstances.
Positive responses %
Concept: Considering the physical working circumstances prevailing the organisation.
Analysis: From the above information, it is shown that the physical working circumstances prevailing in the company by staff members. i.e. 97.5% of the respondents are showing positive response, 2.5% of respondents are not satisfied.
A big number of respondents are satisfied with physical job conditions. This shows that the maximum number of the employees in the company is fully comfortable with their working environment.
9. Satisfaction level of staff in the Osters towards the relation existing between all subordinates and administration.
Positive responses %
Concept: An effort is made to know the level of the employee’s relationship existing in between subordinates and superiors.
Analysis: From this table, it is clear that the relationship between subordinates and management in the company from the respondent’s point of view i.e. 97.5% of the all participants are highly satisfied and 2.5% of participants are not very satisfied.
Maximum number of participants is pleased with relation existing between subordinates and administration. This shows that in Osters, there will be good relationship existing between the administration, subordinates and superiors.
10. Employee’s response towards working hours.
Positive responses %
Concept: Consider the level of satisfaction towards job timing schedule of the company.
Analysis: From this given table, this is shown that the working time prevailing in the company from not the participant’s i.e. 97.5% of the participants are highly satisfied and the rest are not happy.
11. Staff’s satisfaction towards conflict resolution.
% age of respondents
Concept: To know the satisfaction of the employees towards conflict resolution.
Analysis: In the terms of conflict resolution 30% of the staff always feels satisfied.7.5% of the staff feels satisfied quite often, 12.5% staff feels pleased sometimes ,15% rarely and 35% never feel satisfied.
Interpretations: Most of the staff members are not pleased with the way by the conflicts are resolved in the company.
12. Worker’s satisfaction response towards canteen services.
Positive responses %
Concept: Just find out the satisfaction level of the staff towards canteen services.
Analysis: Food is the basic need of the staff. 87.5% of the staff is fully satisfied with canteen facilities and like the way of food serving that is hygienically well. 12.5% of the staff is not satisfied with these facilities.
Interpretation: Most of the staff is fully satisfied with the food and other facilities provided by canteen.
13) Employee satisfaction towards welfare measures.
a) Satisfaction level of intramural actions.
Concept: An effort has been made to find the satisfaction level of intramural activities.
Analysis: The facilities provided inside the association must be such that workers will be satisfied with their job. Medical facilities attract 90% of the staff. Only 10% of the staff is happy with compensations.
Interpretation: The largest number of employees is not satisfied with the costs for accidents but they are willing for medical facilities.
b) Staff satisfaction level towards extra mural activities Measures
% age of respondents
Concept: An effort has been made to find out the satisfaction level of extra mural behavior.
Analysis: Not only inside the organisation facilities but outside conveniences must also be provided. From this given information this is shown that housing accommodation facilities attract 67.5% of the total staff.20% of the staff happy with transportation and 12.5% is pleased with educational facilities.
Interpretation: Most of the workers are not fully contented with the educational facilities but they are fully satisfied with housing accommodation.
14) .Staff’s satisfaction level towards bonus schemes.
Concept: To find out the satisfaction level of the staff towards the bonus provisions.
Analysis: Provision of bonus enhances the inner skill ability of the staff .92.5 % of the staff is happy with provision of bonus and the rest 7.5% of the staff is unsatisfied.
Interpretation: Mostly the staff members are satisfied by bonus provided by the company. So it can say Oster provide great attentions toward bonus schemes.
15) Employee satisfaction towards social security measures.
Concept: Try to find the satisfaction towards social safety measures.
Analysis: Job safety will be provided through this measure. From this given
information it is shown that most of the pleased employees belong to Provident fund, 7.5% say positive response to pension plans and 17.5% say positive response to Gratuity and the rest 75% say yes to Provident fund.
A big part of staff members is satisfied with provident fund.
16) Worker’s satisfaction towards safety measures
% of respondents
Concept: To find the satisfaction of the employees towards security measures.
Analysis: Satisfaction of protection measures gives a feeling to staff that they are longer safe. 92.5% of the employees expressed their pleasure with the accessible safety measures in the organisation.7.5% of them are not satisfied.
Maximum numbers of workers are contented with the safety measures taken by the organisation.
17) Workers satisfaction towards overtime allowances.
% age of Respondents
Concept: A try to find the staff’s satisfaction towards overtime allowance.
Analysis: In any organisation the overtime allowances given to staff to make them happy and increase the efficiency or productivity of the company. From the table we can see a very small part (20%) of the staff members is satisfied with time allowances. Other 80% of the staff is not satisfied.
Maximum numbers of participants are not satisfied with the overtime allowance given by the company.
Finding and Conclusion
The majority of the workers are satisfied with present job.
Workers are satisfied with excellent pay as the key motivation factor for work efficiency.
Employees are satisfied with salary offering at OSTER KNIT LTD.
The majority of the employees do not have their source of income.
The majority of the employees are placed by direct appointments by OSTER.
The majority of the employees are satisfied with promotion and transfer policies.
Employees are pleased with physical working conditions.
Employees have a fine chemistry between labour groups i.e. between different classes of job designations.
There is a mixture of opinions for disagreement being resolved, with maximum poll towards dissatisfaction.
Maximum workforce are satisfied with existing canteen amenities which providing first-class foods with quality to workers.
As part of intramural amenities, they prefer a medicinal facility to accident reimbursement.
Workers feel they require housing accommodation more than educational and transport facilities.
Most of the workers feel that the salary is not acceptable and salary offering plays a key role in worker satisfaction, in turn industrial growth.
Most Of the employees are pleased with their employment conditions.
Provision of sensible salary plays an important role in improving the standards of living this single factor is significant for a worker than any other. So that the organisation must provide adequate salaries to the workers.
Systematic planning reduces hurdles at work place and it ensures smooth run of work method. So the current means of planning the job would be maintained as before to achieve the goal very efficiently
Attractive schemes from Osters would activate workers and increase individualistic employment efficiency.
Additional and intramural facilities are also being boosted factor for the efficient work source.
Overtime allowances are sometime an inventive factor for organisational value and its hike factors.
7s framework is more expected frequency for an efficient work organisation.
Co-operation between administration and other department is very important to carry out the job.
Catering services helps to sustain hygienic safety and health of the employee. So employer should improve these services.
From this analysis I conclude that job provides the opportunity to the workforce to exercise their skills at job.
Number of workers established that at times there is a important elasticity in Co coordination with employment and they are satisfied with existing interpersonal communication in Oster Knit Ltd. They follow the organized planning and review process to appraise the performance of the employee.
From the examination it was checked that was there is a possibility for the enlargement of working conditions of Oster limited income wrap up would climb. Finally I would like to say or conclude that employees are at Oster are satisfied with job and organisation.
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