Predisposing Factors Of Homosexuality Sociology Essay

A term Paper presented to

Mr. Roger Garcia

English Department

By:

Daffodil Dawn F. Aquino

Angeliza P. Sumbelin

BSN 3- NA

February 14, 2013

Outline:

Estrogen-Containing foods: A homosexual risk to males

Thesis: Predisposing factors of homosexuality are foods that contain a high level of estrogen such as chicken, soy beans and dairy products like milk that may put males at risk for a change in sexuality by altering the hormonal level of estrogen thus changing secondary characteristics in males such as enlargement of breast (gynecomastia), change in psychological behaviours, erectile dysfunction and a decrease in libido.

I. The estrogen is a group of female sex hormones directed to the development of female sexual characteristics.

A. Steroidal estrogen is cholesterol derivatives comprising a group of structurally related hormonally active molecules that control sex and growth hormones.

1. Estrone is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary as well as adipose tissue.

2. Estradiol is the predominant sex hormone present in females and males.

3. Estriol is only produced in significant amounts during pregnancy.

B. Non-steroidal estrogen is a range of synthetic and natural substances have been identified that also possesses estrogenic activity.

1. Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen. This includes commercially raised, non-organic meat such as beef, chicken and pork, dairy products including milk, cheese and ice cream.

2. Phytoestrogens are plant products with estrogenic activity. This includes soy products, cereals, breads, legumes, meat products and other processed foods that contain soy, vegetables, fruit, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

3. Mycoestrogens are those produced by fungi. These are commonly found in stored grain and silage.

II. Estrogen dominance is a hormone imbalance that occurs when levels of the hormone estrogen are too high in relation to other hormones in the body.

A. The most influential biological theory of sexual orientation is that hormones influence the development of neural structures that regulates sexual behaviour.

1. The estrogen derived from aromatose actually displaces testosterone to the receptor sites and would cause an effect of "turning off" testosterone driven activities.

2. Increase estrogen can lead to make sexual dysfunction and has reduced ability to ejaculate.

3. Excess estrogen level in men may also lead to infertility.

B. High estrogen levels in men are also beneficial during gender reassignment because the synthetic hormone will cause female characteristics to develop in men.

1. Gynecomastia (breast enlargement in men) results from an altered estrogen-androgen balance or from increased breast sensitivity to a normal circulating estrogen level.

2. Some men may suffer from depression and psychological effects as they tend to become fore assertive like females.

3. Elevated level of estrogen can cause loss of muscle tone.

III. Homosexuality is a romantic or sexual attraction or behaviour between members of the same sex or gender.

A. There are different theories on homosexuality.

1. Freud believed that men were born bisexual and that they became homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others.

2. Ellis believed that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease.

B. Estrogen’s actions in the brain and the bases for the changes in men.

1. Estrogen can cause dimorphisms (occurrence of two forms in the same species) in men.

2. Estrogen in males can cause activational, reversible effects or hormonal modulated responses which dictate sex differences to males for cellular and functional level but are not in themselves true dimorphisms.

3. Increased levels of estrogen can slow the production of testosterone in men thus female characteristics begin to be manifested by males.

IV. High levels of Estrogen can alter the normal functioning of males thus predisposing males to manifest female characteristics.

A. Males who have increased level of estrogen may exhibit characteristics of females.

B. Increased estrogen in males can cause reversible effects or hormonal response which alters the sex presentation of males.

C. High level of estrogen are found in foods like soy products, processed meats and some of the dairy products like milk and cheese.

The population of homosexual is rapidly increasing and it is evident in the society. Theorists have formulated different probable causes of homosexuality. According to J. Michael Bailey and Richard C. Dillard, homosexuality is bought by genetic foundation and is related to the sex hormones specifically the hormone Estrogen. This study aims to further establish strong evidence that the increase consumption of estrogen-containing foods will predispose males to homosexuality. Estrogen is the hormone responsible for the development of the secondary sex characteristics in females though it is present also in males in minimal amount for the maturation of the sperm cells and muscle tone development.

There are two different kinds of Estrogen: Steroidal and Nondsteroidal. Steroidal Estrogens are cholesterol derivatives comprising a group of structurally related hormonally active molecules that control sex and growth hormones. There are three different components of Steroidal Estrogens: Estrone which is secreted by the ovary, Estradiol which is the predominant sex hormone, and Estriol which is present during pregnancy. Of which, the Estradiol is said to be the hormone responsible for the changes in secondary sex characteristics in both males and females. On the other hand, the Nondsteroidal Estrogen is a range of synthetic and natural substances that possesses estrogenic activity as it mimics the effects of Estrogen in the body. There are three different kinds of Nondsteroidal Estrogen: Xenoestrogens, a type of xenohormone, often found in commercially raised, non-organic meat such as beef, chicken, and pork, and dairy products including milk, cheese, and ice cream. Next type is the Phytoestrogens which are plant products with estrogenic activity, mostly found in soy foods that contain soy, vegetables, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. Lastly, the Mycoestrogens which are produced by fungi and is commonly found in stored grain and silage.

These products have been one of the factors that increase Estrogen in males which lead to changes in characteristics such as enlargement of the breast, known as gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, decrease in libido, and a change in psychological behaviour such as heightening of the emotional aspects.Take for example the chickens. According to Hrabia (2011), during the first week of birth of a chicken, steroid Estrogen is injected to the bloodstream which then disrupts the production of progesterone. Instead of producing progesterone, Estrogen is being released in the chicken body thereby causing changes to the chicken’s physical characteristics, making them look bigger at early age. People believed that when they eat chicken with high estrogen, or any other products which are believed to have high estrogen, makes them gay.

There has been a study about how asubstance in food can alter the chemicals in our body to cause such a change in men’s characteristics. That study is called Nutrigenomics. According to Insel, P. (2007), food substances alter molecular processes such as DNA structure, formation, gene expression and metabolism. It can act directly or indirectly on the human genome and alters the structure and gene expression thoughthe study is still on going.

Balance is very important in our bodies to help us function at our optimal level. There are numerous processes that help our body achieve balance, one example would be the process of aromatization. It is a process wherein testosterone is converted to estrogen. It happens in men but it is also presents in females in an occasional basis. Nowadays, men engage in practices that would increase their testosterone level like for example injecting the hormone in their body to appear more masculine compared to other men but little did they know that the excess testosterone will eventually be converted to Estrogen. Men, naturally, only have a little amount of Estrogen so if a lot of Estrogen has been stored because of the aromatose, then there might be increased level of Estrogen present than what is actually needed and if levels of Estrogen would be higher than the levels of testosterone present, often referred as "estrogen dominance", then change would occur altering the normal functioning of the body. Estrogen would then block testosterone receptors inhibiting the release of testosterone in the body and that would eventually affect the production of sperm thus leading to less sperm count, one reason of infertility to men, and because of less testosterone, the muscles begin to atrophy thus leading to decrease ability of erection. Environmental estrogens, also called as the xenoestrogens, are quite abundant around us. It is present in meats, dairy products and this contributes also to an increase in the estrogen in the body, and this chemical is known to have an effect also to the infertility to men.

Meanwhile, studies show that high levels of estrogen in men are beneficial during gender reassignment due to the synthetic hormone that causes female characteristics to develop in men. This female secondary characteristic involves gynecomastia and loss of muscle tone thus men may suffer from depression and psychological effects, like mood swings, as they tend to become assertive like females. Gynecomastia, based from Braunstein’s study, occurs when there is an imbalance or altered estrogen-androgen action at the breast tissue levels. This occurs due to an increase in free estrogen through direct secretion from the testes or adrenal glands, displacement of more estrogen than androgen from the blood transport protein, or through an administration or exposure to exogenous estrogen or estrogen like products, such as soy products. There could also be a loss of muscle tone since estrogen is a female hormone, it brings out the feminine side of a person which is flexibility and thus lessens man’s masculinity. Men may also suffer from depression and mood shift which is commonly resulting from stress. According to Shansky (2009),depression is precipitated by stress and it is evident that estrogen plays a vital role in regulating the serotonin receptors and transporters, a hormone responsible in mood regulation. According to the study, estrogen-stress interactions act on the three areas of the brain, where mood is being regulated- hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In estrogen-stress interactions in the hippocampus, estrogen rendered the hippocampus to be more sensitive to the adverse effects of stress that causes an impaired cognitive performance in male. In amygdala, it plays a vital role in processing a stimulus though there is no enough evidence to understand the effects of estrogen in this region. Lastly, in the prefrontal cortex, estrogen can exaggerate the effects of stress that causes poor concentration, prolonged sadness, negative thoughts, and impaired verbal fluency.

On the other hand, sexual orientation is a pattern of emotional or romantic attraction to men, women or to both sexes while homosexuality is a sexual or romantic attraction between men. There are theorists who focused their study on the homosexuals and one of them is the famous Sigmund Freud in his Psychodynamic theory. Freud stated that men were born bisexual and they become homosexual as a result of their life experiences. Freud has six stages of the psychodynamic theory. Homosexuality enters when there is an unresolved issue at the phallic stage. The phallic stage is where the Oedipus complex happens; in this stage, the child idolizes his father and does anything to get the attention of his mother. The child also imitates the actions of the father. At this stage, that behaviour is normal for a child, it only becomes abnormal when the child, instead to the mother, develops feelings towards the father. If this situation remains unresolved until the child reaches maturation, according to Freud, the child then develops attraction to his same sex thus becoming a homosexual. Aside from Freud, another theorist has shared his insights about homosexuality. His name was Havelock Elli, he claimed that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral. He further argued that being a homosexual is not a disease instead they bring great contribution to the society. Ellis tried to trace the origin of an individual being a homosexual through their personal experiences in life and that theory is called sexual inversion. In his theory, he brought back the dignity and respect for the homosexuals in the society. Many homosexuals in Britain wrote letters to Ellis indicating their problems and life story for Elli to help them trace their origin.

Each gender has its own characteristics and that is somehow coined as sexual dimorphism which is controlled by the hypothalamus. If there are certain changes that happen in the regulation in the hypothalamus, it would also bring about changes in the reproductive hormones and mating behaviours specifically the sexual preferences. The alteration may be brought by a lot of factors and one would be the increase level of estrogen in the body. There are several estrogen receptors available in the body and most of them are found in the anterior hypothalamus. As mentioned earlier, there are abundant supplies of estrogen-like compounds available in the environment like the xenoestrogens that mimics the effects of estrogen in our body. The xenoestrogens will then attach itself to the estrogen receptors preventing the natural estrogens to attach to it thus it then causes alteration in the process. Since the levels of estrogen may be higher than what is required, it would then send signals to the hypothalamus which would then send messages to the autonomic nervous system which would then result to alterations in the normal functioning of the body. A person may exhibit manifestations that are not present before. And gradually if estrogen would over power testosterone in men, then its sexual dimorphism will eventually change and this is referred as the "feminization". And eventually, sexual behaviours will be altered and that would predispose a person in a change in sexual preference since the characteristic of the other sexual dimorphism has been adapted due to the presence of excess estrogen which is the main component present in the other gender.

Therefore, we can say how important balance is in our body. Too much of everything may cause harm and lesser amounts of chemicals could also put humans in harm. We cannot trust the environment that we are living today. Who would have thought that the foods containing estrogen compounds like the dairy products, soy products and meats could keep us healthy would be the same foods that could change our normal functioning in terms of our sexuality and reproductive processes and would predispose men to a lot of physical attributes like gynecomastia, sexual dysfunction and worse would be infertility. Estrogen containing foods could also be a risk of changing male's sexual orientation due to the feminization process that happens when the estrogen hormone has dominated the testosterone levels in their body. Even so, there has not been any strong evidence that estrogen itself is responsible for these changes because there are a lot of factors to be considered. One would be its genetic predisposition, social and cultural inclination and their lifestyle. That is why high levels of estrogen will remain a risk factor and not a cause.

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