Quantitative Design Grading Rubric Sociology Essay

This is the final research project assignment for this course (NOTE: The research project builds on itself each week and will culminate with your final research proposal submission during Week 8). Ensure you use the same research project topic that you used for last week’s submission unless you were directed by the instructor to change it.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION GRADING RUBRIC

Quality of Thought

Student wrote a substantive paper that showed higher levels of cognitive thought following bloom’s taxonomy (analysis, synthesis & evaluation).

Descriptors

Excellent: Exceptional, complete, clear, exceeds performance indicators

Good: Excellent, complete, meets performance indicators

Average: Approaching performance indicators, missing some detail, not fully developed

Fair: Developing competence, vague, weak, needs more detail

Poor:  Not present

Category

Category Description

Descriptor

Points Awarded/Max. Points

Introduction (60 pts)

Problem statement (12 pts)

Purpose Statement (6 pts)

 

 

Research Question (6 pts)

 

 

Hypothesis (6 pts)

Significance of the Study (6 pts)

 

 

Background (6 pts)

Assumptions (6 pts)

Key Terms (6 pts)

Delimitations (3 pts)

Theoretical Framework (3 pts)

Total

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW GRADING RUBRIC

Quality of Thought

Student wrote a substantive paper that showed higher levels of cognitive thought following bloom’s taxonomy (analysis, synthesis & evaluation).

Descriptors

Excellent: Exceptional, complete, clear, exceeds performance indicators

Good: Excellent, complete, meets performance indicators

Average: Approaching performance indicators, missing some detail, not fully developed

Fair: Developing competence, vague, weak, needs more detail

Poor:  Not present

Category

Category Description

Descriptor

Points Awarded/Max. Points

Literature review (60 pts)

Includes at least 15 scholarly resources in the reference list that are also used in the literature review (i.e. books or peer reviewed articles) (10 pts)

Provides appropriate critical analysis of individual studies. (10 pts)

 

 

Provides sufficient information/ overview of individual studies. (10 pts)

 

 

Provides adequate synthesis of previous studies (15 pts)

Provides as a whole a broad / comprehensive overview of previous research related to the research problem (and is 5-7 pages long).

(15 pts)

Total

 

CHAPTER 3: QUANTITATIVE DESIGN GRADING RUBRIC

Category

Category Description

Descriptor

Points Awarded/Max. Points

Quantitative Design (80 pts)

Focus- Discusses whether focus will be on individuals, groups, cultures, experiences, processes, or content; and the rationale for the decision. (9 pts)

Design- Discusses which quantitative design method will be used and why it is suitable. (9 pts)

Characteristics of the Data- Discusses whether the data is continuous or discrete, what type of scale the data will represent, where the data will come from, what tests will be used on the data, and the rationale for processing the data. Discusses measures that are used for the independent and dependent variables and how any intermediate variables will be controlled. If experimental, includes the type of experiment that will be used. (20 pts)

Data Interpretation- Discusses what will be the outcome of the data analyses/tests used. Includes what the interpretation of the data will consist of, and how the statistical analysis will solve part or the entire research problem. Also discusses what work, if any, needs to be done after the data tests are complete and plans for carrying out subsequent interpretation of the data. (14 pts)

Findings- discuss how the context will be described, how participants’ perspectives will be conveyed, and what tools or formats will be used to synthesize the data. (8 pts)

Student’s paper is free of grammatical errors and is written in a manner where a college level reader can grasp the essay’s meaning/argument in a single rapid reading. In text citations are used where appropriate to cite others’ work. Reference list is complete and IAW APA standards. (20 pts)

Total

 

Virginia International University

CPM551 - Research Methods

Professor: Nathan Minami, Ph.D.

Spring I 2013

Research Project on

Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Technological Transformation

Submitted By

Anshuman Dadhich

STUDENT ID: 10000120930

CHAPTER -1

Introduction:

What is Artificial Intelligence?

According to the John McCarthy, the gentleman who first coined the term, "Artificial Intelligence", AI is the science and engineering of building intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs where intelligence is the computational ability to achieve goals in the world. An intelligent machine is a machine that mimics the way that humans think, feel, move and make the decisions. Such a machine can also act in the group with humans to help and improve their ability to do smart things. There are many possible approaches to challenge and define the term Artificial Intelligence, which could not be a static.

History:

Ancient History:

The history of Artificial Intelligence is way back in history, The Greek philosopher Aristotle’s Idea 322 BC made this famous quote.

"If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it … then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords." (Aristotle 322 BC)

This shows the idea of artificial intelligence machines was though way back in history.

DaVinci’s Knight 1495 Leonardo da Vinci designed a clockwork knight that will sit up, movement its arms and move its head and jaw. There is no evidence if such a design was built as then this design is certainly constitute the first humanoid robot.

Vaucanson Duck 1737 French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson built a clockwork duck which was capable of panicking just like a real duck as by movements of its wings, and quack, eat and digest the food. This Robotic duck which can perform all the basic functions like drinking, eating, paddling in water, digest and expurgate.

20th Century Developments:

According to Warren McCulloch & Walter Pitts in 1943 authored some down foundations for Neural Networks. Turing A. M. Played a key role in the development of A.I. Claude Shannon in 1950 for the first time programmed a computer to play Chess. According to the "Robots and AI Timeline" (2006), In 1954 George Devol and Joseph Engelberger created the world's first industrial robot Company. In 1958 JOHH MCCARTHY developed the LIST (a List processing) language. The primitive AI machines helped in forecasting the stock market, aided doctors in diagnosing disease and in mining. In 1962 Unimation, first ever Manufacturing industry for Robots was founded. Bert Raphael from MIT was the person to introduce the concept of the iPhone. In 1969 the first Robot was developed named Shakey which had the ability of combining locomotion, perception and problem solving. In 1973 scientists from Edinburgh University constructed the first Robot, which could locate and assemble geometric models using their enhanced special vision capability. In 1986, in the US alone AI related hardware and software sales peaked to $425 million. The 1986-87 period was unfavorable for AI, the industries undergone Bankruptcy. Despite these discouraging events, AI slowly recovered with Japanese intervention. In 1989, Dean Pomerleau from CMU invented first ever ALVINN (An Autonomous Land Vehicle in a Neural Network), which powered a car to drive 2850 miles. Based on this research Google has recently created Google car, which ran for about 40,000 miles unmanned. In 1996 Honda unveiled the P-2 (prototype 2), a humanoid robot capable of walking that can walk, climbing stairs and carrying. In 1997 The Deep Blue chess AI created by IBM won the game over world champion Garry Kasparov. It is only in 2000's Interactive pet robots named AKA made commercially available to customers. In 2001 April robotic spy plane travelled unmanned over of 18,000 miles between California, US, and Southern Australia.

Hypothesis:

The development in A.I has gone through dramatic advancements in the past century. In the 21st century Intelligent Andro Humanoid Robots will live among us and become part and parcel of our life. These robots will be able to think independently in terms of decision making. Perhaps may even surpass the human intelligence that an increase in the abundance and capability of Intelligent Andro Humanoid Robots will result in an increased threat to the human race.

Purpose of the study:

The aim of the study is to analyze the developments in Robotics and use this information in designing andro humanoid robot, which can think independently.

Delimitation and limitations:

The prominent delimitations of the project are that, even if scientists are able to lend intelligence to machines, it is quite difficult to make them experience the emotions. This poses strong challenge to the development of a complete Andro Humanoid Robot.

Significance of the Study:

The creation of Andro humanoid Robots and making intelligent machines will open the doors for humans to many unthinkable explorations such as space and deep sea. For example recently Robot was sent to Mars for scientific explorations which saved human life an indirect means.

Theoretical framework:

Alan Turing is the Father of A.I. He invented the Turing machines, which can compute all mathematical problems. Developments in A.I are furthered by McCarthy’s List programming. The advantage of this program over others is that it can List processing of the data stored in the form of objects. These objects can be used recursively by the program. Furthermore, it has a feature of reporting errors in real-time while executing the programs. This helps in effective debugging of the program.

Type of design and the assumptions:

Present day research scientists assume that they understand the in-depth mechanism of information processing in the brain. This is in fact quite difficult to decipher because of complexity of brain anatomy and physiology. Brain is such a complex structure that there are billions of neurons; each one firing signals at least 10 others. This makes it very hard to understand such an intricate mechanism; this assumption poses potential threat, if the designed robot goes away.

Role of the researcher (including qualification and assumptions):

In order to design and develop precise and efficient and safe robots, the research team much constitutes all interdisciplinary scientists like Neurobiologists, electronics and computers engineer etc.

Role of Neurobiologist would be to decipher the brain working mechanism and, electronic engineer has to look after circuits of robot processor in accordance with findings of neurobiologist. Then the role of Mathematician is to write algorithm based on neurobiologist findings. It completes with computer engineer by writing a program. The scope of researchers mentioned above is sufficient but not limited.

Methods of achieving validation:

According to Isaac Asimov there are three laws of robotics:

Isaac Asimov in 1950 proposed three laws of robotics.

First Law: a robot must not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to be harmed. (Asimov I, 1976).

Second Law: a robot must obey the commands of human beings, except where the orders conflict with the first law. (Asimov I, 1976).

Third Law: a robot must protect its own existence so long as this does not conflict with the first two laws. Fourth law is amended to this list by Asimo, which is "law of procreation". This law implies that the robots must not indulge in creating other robot, which does not follow the above laws of robotics. (Asimov I, 1976).

CHAPTER -2

Literature Review:

In order to understand the role of the "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) is known as automated decision making plays in day to day business applications. Today it’s important to understand that how it came about, what its definitions are, and the different types or branches of AI itself. AI is a field of science and technology based on the disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology, linguistics, mathematics and engineering. An intelligent machine is a machine that mimics the way that the humans think, feel, move and make the decisions. Such a machine can also act or work in the group with humans to help and improve their ability to do smart things. . (McCarthy, 2007)

Artificial intelligence is, simply put, the science of neurobiology, electronics and computers engineering of making an intelligent machines. Quintessential examples of artificially intelligent machines include the robots from Isaac Asimov’s, Robot series of short stories. Many of the things we think of when we think of an artificial intelligent machine such as understanding human language, human like problem solving skills, or learning by experience. (Acosta, 2012)

British mathematician Alan Mathison Turing (Turning, 1950), suggests that in the future there would be a machine that would self-replicate and can have the human intelligence. Turing formulated specialized test, known as the Turing test, which can be used to prove the artificial intelligence of machine. In his test, the questioner may ask the random questions to the subject (which could be a human or an AI machine hidden from questioners view), If the machine be successful, the questioner would be unable to distinguish the machine from the human.

According to the AI methods in Robotics (February 2012), today robots are used in many ways such as Military robots include the Modular Advanced Armed Robotic System (MAARS) robots which are being developed and can be used in as a ground-based combat. It can use lethal and non-lethal weapons and to some degree given the autonomy in the battleground situations.

Another example and the need of such intellectual robots can be in the service industry where they have the ability to handle the sudden, unexpected changes in the situations and provide the human experience of care-giver.

Ultimate AI would be a recreation of human thought process and a manmade machine with human like intellectual abilities. This would comprise the ability to learn anything, ability to reason, ability to use language and ability to formulate the original ideas. Robot cists are nowhere near achieving this level of the artificial intelligence, but there has been much progress with more limited AI. (Harris, 2002).

According to the Timeline of Robotics (August 2008), the history of robotics in the modern times can be explained and extended regularly. Each robot is a small individual piece of computerized cube connected by the magnets, these magnets which allow the cubes to attach with or detach themselves from one another, helping to build a self-replicating robot. Moreover the new robot begins to assist the old in the building process. Robotics is used in almost most the industries and will definitely be used even more in the times to come in near future.

The Three Laws of the Robotics are a set of the rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov and later expanded upon. These rules introduced in his 1942 a short story "Runaround", defines the Friendly use of Robots.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Robots:

Robots are very much advanced in automation technologies generally used for the production and non-production activities in order to make life easier and to improve the productivity at work place. In manufacturing systems, many manufacturers have turned the robotics and automation for more reliable manufacturing system solutions. Application examples of robots are found in construction industry, car parks, nuclear installations, airports, and mines, hospitals, welding shipyards, space stations and automotive applications. In particular, robots are found in an unusual place where the environmental and working conditions presents hazards and/or where dangerous tasks are performed.

CHAPTER - 3

Research on Quantitative Design:

Focus:

The paper focuses upon the groups and individual’s as such the industries may use the robots to reduce their infrastructure to acquire the cost benefits and to increase the efficiency of the technology in a feasible way, as a point the paper focuses upon the individuals of using the robotics technology where robots today are installed in homes, performing labor or lifesaving jobs, many new kinds of technological advanced robots are being created in labs around the world. It is anticipated that these new kinds of robot will be able to solve the real world problems when they are finally equipped with the advanced artificial intelligence.

For example: Military robots include the Modular Advanced Armed Robotic System (MAARS) robots which are being developed and can be used in as a ground-based combat. It can use lethal and non-lethal weapons and to some degree given the autonomy in the battleground situations.

Another example and the need of such intellectual robots can be in the service industry where they have the ability to handle the sudden, unexpected changes in the situations and provide the human experience of care-giver.

The rationale behind this decision is that to reduce the cost, quality, production, savings and the safety, and to achieve the greater worker safety leads to the financial savings. As we move on with the advancement of the technology so for the present market robot plays a major role in almost every aspect, which can be helpful for the future developments.

Design:

Descriptive design method: As the paper describes about the terms of the Artificial Intelligence robotics and the laws of the robots based upon the robots and the data is being collected through different means and the usage of the robots is being analyzed. And here the background information of the robot is being defined by the virtualization where it plays a main role for the AI robotics technology.

Experimental design method: The paper also focuses upon the experimental studies as such it uses the statistical data for the certain years and compare the usage of then the robotics technology and the no of individuals use and based upon the technology the employment status of the current year are been compared and analyzed in this experimental studies.

Characteristics of Data:

The data acquired in this particular research paper is both continuous and discrete as it is based upon the robotics technology and the users. As the year measured is a discrete as it specifies the usage for one particular year but the users and immigrants of the robot technology varies every year so it can be considered as both discrete and continuous.

Here the scale used in this paper is the "ratio" as it describes the no of increased users for the technology in the particular year and its improvement in the coming years, the ratio graph can be determined between usages of the technology in one particular year.

The data is collected through survey and the clients, administrative and financial records for the particular year here the journals and magazines played a major role where the statistical data is being analyzed worldwide based upon the no of technology users and the technology providers.

Here in this paper we use the "AI robotics and laws of robotics" because it focuses upon two major groups as such the development of robotics technology and the number of users of the robotics technology in one particular year this gives me the empirical data regarding the users and the technology developers in current year.

The rationale for processing the data is the information given and the evolution of the new robot technology could not variant with the existing technology other than the robotics.

Here we define the AI robotics technology as the independent variable and the no of users as the dependent variables as it can have a cause and effect. We measure the independent variable as the robotics technology can be used by the groups, individuals. Here the experiment is based upon the comparison as such the robot technology development. Current year economy and number of technology users. Here the experiment was cause effect.

Data interpretation: It determines the importance and emergence of the AI robotics technology based upon the users in particular years and the robot technology providers. And hence it determines the need and emergence of the robotics technology for individual users.

It determines the statistical data based upon the technology development and usage and depending upon the technology no of increased employment, for the current year. The empirical data determine the comparison of the data in particular years and shows the growth and usage of the technology accordingly to the time and year period.

This statistical data help us in understanding the AI robotics usage form a clear view how the development is being on current years and what is the growth of the robotics technology this helps me throughout the research paper on valid reason. After the tests have been completed we can have a check on daily basis regarding the increase in the robot providers and users. Which can be available in almost all the magazines and journals? And understanding the security, reliability and feasibility of the usage of robot technology is a major task after the completion of the tests and experiments after the interpretation of the data.

Findings:

It describes the context in terms of adapting the AI robotics technology, its extensive features and security levels for users and computers, its massive advantages and benefits to the individual users. And also we prefer the context in terms of the technology as "AI Robotics".

We convey the participant’s perspectives in terms of individual users where the individuals have been sampled on the basis of the robot technology usage and the companies have been sampled on the adaption basis and the authors have been sampled on the basis of their methods and developments in the particular technology and its evolution. I believe it could be easy to understand to almost all the users and the readers of the articles who use or read this research.

We collect the data analyze the data in a required format and a structure where the any reader would be able to replicate the study from the sources have been retrieved and evaluate my research based upon my thesis and methods used which derive you to the results obtained. I would like to use APA format for the entire documentation are Arial 12, font size 12, Page size 1 on all the four sides, Introduction, Problem statement, Thesis, Study, Limitations, Results and Conclusion.

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